Psychophysics: The Fundamentals

By George A. Gescheider | Go to book overview

analysis must be followed. This detailed information is found in sources specifically devoted to multidimensional scaling (e.g., Shiffman, Reynolds, & Young, 1981).


CONCLUSION

For nearly 150 years, the goal of measuring sensation magnitude has been fundamental to psychophysics, yet many problems remain today. For example, different scaling techniques often produce different results. Either all or some of the methods produce invalid results, or the different methods are validly measuring different aspects of perception. It has been argued that the solution to this problem depends on the development of fundamental psychophysics defined by Ward ( 1992) as an attempt to find "a core of concepts and relations from which all the rest of psychophysics can be derived" (p. 190). We have a tremendous amount of experimental data accumulated since the birth of psychophysics, and we have many concepts such as spatial and temporal summation, adaptation, masking, contrast, stimulus variability, sensory-system variability, to name but a few, to explain them. The basic question is whether there are a few fundamental concepts that, when properly interrelated, will explain all of psychophysics. In recent years, several proposals have been made for such a fundamental psychophysical theory. For example, for Norwich ( 1993), the fundamental principles of psychophysics came from information theory in which the critical event is the flow of information rather than stimulus energy as in more traditional psychophysical theories. From a few basic principles of information flow, Norwich was able to explain sensory adaptation, Fechner's law, and Stevens' law. A somewhat different approach can be seen in Link ( 1992), Wave Theory of Difference and Similarity. According to this theory, on each trial, the observer samples the stimulus continuously over time and the result is the envelope of a time-amplitude waveform. At any point during the sampling process the value sampled from the stimulus wave is subtracted from a value sampled from a referent wave, and the result is a comparative wave. The differences between the sampled wave and the referent wave cumulate over time until the sum exceeds the observer's threshold. The response to the stimulus starts as a quantized action of sensory receptor modeled by a Poisson process, which allows for the prediction of sensation magnitude functions. This theory, in contrast to that of Norwich, focuses on stimulus energy rather than stimulus information. Finally, the nonlinear nature for the process of judging sensory stimuli as they are first converted to sensory

-369-

Notes for this page

Add a new note
If you are trying to select text to create highlights or citations, remember that you must now click or tap on the first word, and then click or tap on the last word.
One moment ...
Project items

Items saved from this book

This book has been saved
Highlights (0)
Some of your highlights are legacy items.

Highlights saved before July 30, 2012 will not be displayed on their respective source pages.

You can easily re-create the highlights by opening the book page or article, selecting the text, and clicking “Highlight.”

Citations (0)
Some of your citations are legacy items.

Any citation created before July 30, 2012 will labeled as a “Cited page.” New citations will be saved as cited passages, pages or articles.

We also added the ability to view new citations from your projects or the book or article where you created them.

Notes (0)
Bookmarks (0)

You have no saved items from this book

Project items include:
  • Saved book/article
  • Highlights
  • Quotes/citations
  • Notes
  • Bookmarks
Notes
Cite this page

Cited page

Style
Citations are available only to our active members.
Sign up now to cite pages or passages in MLA, APA and Chicago citation styles.

(Einhorn, 1992, p. 25)

(Einhorn 25)

1

1. Lois J. Einhorn, Abraham Lincoln, the Orator: Penetrating the Lincoln Legend (Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 1992), 25, http://www.questia.com/read/27419298.

Cited page

Bookmark this page
Psychophysics: The Fundamentals
Settings

Settings

Typeface
Text size Smaller Larger
Search within

Search within this book

Look up

Look up a word

  • Dictionary
  • Thesaurus
Please submit a word or phrase above.
Print this page

Print this page

Why can't I print more than one page at a time?

Full screen
/ 440

matching results for page

Cited passage

Style
Citations are available only to our active members.
Sign up now to cite pages or passages in MLA, APA and Chicago citation styles.

"Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences." (Einhorn, 1992, p. 25).

"Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences." (Einhorn 25)

"Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences."1

1. Lois J. Einhorn, Abraham Lincoln, the Orator: Penetrating the Lincoln Legend (Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 1992), 25, http://www.questia.com/read/27419298.

Cited passage

Welcome to the new Questia Reader

The Questia Reader has been updated to provide you with an even better online reading experience.  It is now 100% Responsive, which means you can read our books and articles on any sized device you wish.  All of your favorite tools like notes, highlights, and citations are still here, but the way you select text has been updated to be easier to use, especially on touchscreen devices.  Here's how:

1. Click or tap the first word you want to select.
2. Click or tap the last word you want to select.

OK, got it!

Thanks for trying Questia!

Please continue trying out our research tools, but please note, full functionality is available only to our active members.

Your work will be lost once you leave this Web page.

For full access in an ad-free environment, sign up now for a FREE, 1-day trial.

Already a member? Log in now.