Canadians in the Making: A Social History of Canada

By Arthur R. M. Lower | Go to book overview

4: A community formed

NOT LONG AFTER THE YOUNG KING LOUIS XIV came of age, New France was given the institutions of a province of France ( 1663)--governor, intendant and Sovereign Council, with deputy governors and intendants at Montreal and Trois Rivières. The current legal code of the metropolitan capital, the Custom of Paris, hitherto informally used, now became the official code, and as such began its evolution into 'the law of Canada.'

The new turn brought not only institutions but a new vigour embodied in new and able men, conspicuously the Intendant Jean Talon. Talon may have been only a subordinate of the great administrator Colbert, but the energy with which he went at getting the settlements on their feet was his own. His measures are well known--the valiant attempts to set up industries such as shipbuilding and brewing, the new villages he founded back inland from Quebec, his gallant efforts to find wives for men who otherwise would have had indefinitely to face the rigours of celibacy. Under this tide of initiative, the old bad days of 'free enterprise' were left behind and the settlements, thanks to public initiative, began to fuse into something like a community. The worst of the pioneering stage was over and men could now think of themselves not merely as Frenchmen overseas, but as colonials; that is, as people who, remaining just as French as ever, were probably in the new world to stay. During the generation after the establishment of the royal province of New France, all the big things that mark a people's life got some kind of permanent form given to them: government, law, landholding, the kind and amount of education deemed necessary, the relations between Church and State-- all such big matters took on the shape they were to maintain until the English Conquest.

What is to be said of the big things can also be said of the little, for in little things as in big, every new group of people strives for a norm of behaviour. When this is achieved, a way

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Canadians in the Making: A Social History of Canada
Table of contents

Table of contents

  • Title Page ii
  • Contents vii
  • Preface xv
  • Part I: New France xxv
  • 1: France Comes to America 1
  • 2: the First Impact Of the Wilderness 10
  • 3: the Foundation Stones Of New France 18
  • 4: A Community Formed 27
  • 5: the Community Established 40
  • 6: New France And Roman Catholicism 56
  • 7: New France Reaches The Provincial Stage 71
  • 8: the Lilies Come Down! 81
  • Part II- British North America 93
  • 9: Aftermath of Conquest 95
  • 10: the First Attempt At Living Together 116
  • 11: the Private Quarrel Of the English 135
  • 12: the First Wave Of English Settlement 143
  • 113: the War of 1812, Constructive Conflict 173
  • 14: the Great Days of Settlement, 1820-1850 187
  • Notes to Chapter 15. 212
  • 16: Mid-Century 240
  • 17: the Height of Prosperity 259
  • 18: the Period of Confederation 273
  • Part Iii: Canada 287
  • 19: A Nation Begun 289
  • 20: the New Nation 299
  • 21: A Sturdy Yeomanry 327
  • 22: the Birth of Modern Canada 345
  • 23: the Transcontinental Country 358
  • 24: New Canadians 371
  • 25: the Immigrant Stocks In Canada 384
  • 27: Yesterday and To-Day 408
  • 28: New Gods for Old 423
  • Index *
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