A History of Canada - Vol. 2

By Gustave Lanctot; Margaret M. Cameron | Go to book overview

CHAPTER SEVENTEEN
NEW ENGLAND INVADES ACADIA
1689-1697

Phipps captures Port Royal. Villebon reoccupies the colony. The Abenakis sole defenders of the country. Errors and inefficiency of Villebon. Indian raids in New England. D'Iberville captures Pemaquid. Church destroys Beaubassin. Peace of Ryswick. Anglo-Abenaki treaty. Brouillan rebuilds Port Royal. Economic stagnation.

While hostilities between the English and the Abenakis continued, and even increased in violence, the situation in New France became still more critical with the outbreak of the War of the Augsburg League in 1689. Hostilities in America began with Frontenac's destructive raids on Salmon Falls and Casco. Exasperated by these attacks and by the restrictions on its fishing and trading activities in Acadia, New England saw in the war a golden opportunity to get rid of its troublesome French and Indian neighbours by invading and conquering Acadia. An expedition was organized under William Phipps who set himself up as admiral of a fleet which he helped to equip with funds from his own pocket. 1

The squadron of three frigates with sixty-six guns and four transports carrying six hundred men set sail from Boston on May 8, 1690, and after capturing Pentagoët on the way, it moored before Port Royal on the morning of the 20th. The fort, which had no retrenchments and was in a bad state of repair, was defended by seventy-two soldiers and a few habitants. The Commander, Menneval, was paralyzed with gout, and he had no responsible officer to whom he could delegate the defence of the post. In these circumstances he had no alternative but to surrender when called upon to do so. However, he laid down certain conditions: the garrison would receive the honours of war and would be sent to Quebec, the women would be respected, the inhabitants would not be robbed or molested, their religious convictions would not

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