We shall pay any price, bear any burden, meet any hardship, support any friend, oppose any foe to assure the survival and the success of liberty.
This we pledge--and more.
-- John F. Kennedy
The dollar is our currency but your problem.
-- John Connally
But the problem is the--the deficit is--or should I say--wait a minute, the spending, I should say, of gross national product, forgive me--the spending is roughly 23 to 24 percent. So that it is in--it is what is increasing, while the revenues are staying proportionately the same and what would be the proper amount they should, that we should be taking from the private sector.
-- Ronald Reagan
The postmodern President must work in a postimperial world in which the United States is not the only elephant in the international system. As nations have become more interdependent, the policies and politics of other nations affect the President when he goes Washington and when he goes public. In 1961, John F. Kennedy could make the politically proud and economically false boast that America had the resources to pay any price to maintain its world role. A decade later, President Nixon's treasury secretary, John Connally, could boast that America was passing to other nations a buck depreciated by inflation. Black Monday on Wall Street in 1987 revealed the vulnerability of the postmodern Presidency to an open international economy. Confronted with demands from abroad for action on the federal government's deficit, President Reagan had difficulty in replying coherently to a press conference question about American policy.
The United States has lost its former position of dominance in the international system but no other country has taken it over. Under certain conditions, oil-rich nations, guerrillas fighting in jungles, revolutionary regimes of the Right and Left, or staid central bankers can make their influence felt. In today's international system, impersonal economic forces are more important than the imagination and personality of heads of government. When the leaders of advanced industrial nations meet in the
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Publication information: Book title: The Postmodern President. Edition: 2nd. Contributors: Richard Rose - Author. Publisher: Chatham House. Place of publication: Chatham, NJ. Publication year: 1991. Page number: 237.
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