Yvonne Haddad, A Century of Islam in America [Occasional Paper No. 4,
Islamic Affairs Program] ( Washington, D.C.: The Middle East Institute, 1986).
Salim Khan, "A Brief History of Pakistanis in the Western United States,"
Master's thesis, California State University, Sacramento, 1981.
Ayad al-Qazzaz, "Images of the Arab in American Social Science Textbooks,"
Sharon McIrvin Abu-Laban, "Stereotypes of Middle East Peoples: An Analysis of
Church School Curricula," both in Arabs in America: Myths and Realities, ed.
Baha Abu Laban
Faith Zeadey, ( Wilmette, Il: Medina University Press International, 1975); Samir Ahmad Jarrar, "Images of the Arabs in the United States Secondary Schools Social
Studies Textbooks: A Content Analysis and Unit Development," Ph.D. Dissertation,
Florida State University, 1976; W. Griswold et al., The Image of Middle East in Secondary School Textbooks ( New York:
Middle East Studies Association of North America, 1975); G. Perry, "Treatment of the Middle East in American High School Textbooks," Journal of Palestine Studies4:3 ( 1975), 46-58; National Association of Arab-Americans, Treatment of the Arab World and Islam in Washington Metropolitan Area Junior and
Senior Textbooks ( Washington, D.C.:
NAAA, 1980); Barbara Aswad, "Biases and Inaccuracies in Textbooks: Depictions of the Arab World," in The Arab World and Arab‐
Americans: Understanding a Neglected Minority, ed.
Sameer Y. Abraham and
( Detroit: Wayne State University Center for Urban Studies, 1981).
Phillip K. Hitti, The Syrians in America ( New York: Doran Press, 1924), p. 88.
Edward Said, Orientalism ( New York: Pantheon, 1978); Janice Terry, "Arab
Stereotypes in Popular Fiction," Arab Perspectives, April 1982; Janice Terry, "The
Arab Israeli Conflict in Popular Literature," American-Arab Affairs, fall 1982; Janice Terry
, "Images of the Middle East in Contemporary Fiction," in
Edmund Ghareeb, ed., Split Vision: Portrayal of Arabs in the American Media ( Washington, D.C.:
Arab Affairs Council, 1983), pp. 315-26.
"From 1984 to the present, a period of nearly two and one-half years, this writer
has documented nineteen films that focus on Arab portrayals. The image of the Arab in
most films parallels the image of the Jew in pre-Nazi Germany. The cinema of Nazi Germany offered viewers the Jews, as scapegoat." Jack J. Shaheen, "The Hollywood
Arab: 1984-86," Mideast Monitor, reprinted and distributed by the
Mary C. McDavid, "Media Myths of the Middle East: The U.S. Press on the
War in Lebanon," G. Neal Lendenmann, "Arab Stereotyping in Contemporary American Political Cartoons," Patricia A. Karl, "In the Middle of the Middle East: The Media
and the U.S. Foreign Policy," and Jack G. Shaheen, "The Image of the Arab on
American Television," all in Ghareeb, Split Vision.
Hatem I. Hussaini, "The Impact of the Arab-Israeli Conflict on Arab Communities in the United States," in Settler Regimes in Africa and the Arab World, ed. Ibrahim Abu-Lughod and
Baha Abu Laban ( Wilmette, Ill.: The Medina University
Press International, 1974), pp. 201-22; Michael W. Suleiman, "The Effect of American
Perceptions of Arabs on Middle East Issues," in
Ghareeb, Split Vision.
Yvonne Haddad, The Muslim Experience in the United States, ( New York:
Oxford University Press, forthcoming).
Yvonne Haddad, "Nationalist and Islamist Tendencies in Contemporary Arab‐
American Communities," in
Hani Faris, ed., Arab Nationalism and the Future of the Arab World ( Belmont Mass.:
Association of Arab-American University Graduates,Inc., 1986), pp. 141-59