The Quakers

By Hugh Barbour; J. William Frost | Go to book overview

1
INTRODUCTION: THE SOCIETY OF FRIENDS

A benevolent old man in a broad-brim black hat, beaming out from a box of oats, is the best-known icon of a Quaker. Most educated Americans know other images: William Penn* shakes hands with the Indians; a plain-dressed couple helps a runaway slave to freedom across the Ohio River; Gary Cooper refuses to fight in the Civil War (in the movie Friendly Persuasion); Elizabeth Fry* preaches to inmates at Newgate prison; Edward Hicks* paints The Peaceable Kingdom. Since Quakers are linked to Pennsylvania as Puritans are to Massachusetts, car license plates of the "Quaker state" (it's a motor oil too) pun that "you've got a Friend in Pennsylvania." The name Quaker is misfitted to a whiskey, an exterminating company, football teams, and a string band. After sixty-nine such entries in the Philadelphia telephone book, the last one is "Quakers--see Friends, Religious Society of," the subject of this book.

The Quaker reality is today diverse, though rooted in a unifying tradition and inner life: silent worship in a 300-year-old meetinghouse; a revival meeting in a cathedral-like midwestern Quaker church; a hundred thousand African Friends in Kenyan villages; thirty Quaker boarding schools and fifteen colleges in ten nations; and Friends Service Committees deeply involved in the crises of American, English, Canadian, and South African society. Quakers are at home in twenty-five languages, but outside Africa and Hispanic America most think in English. George Fox* established their gathering place in London in the 1650s. By now they have spread to forty-six countries on six continents, but nearly half of all Quakers live in the United States, and their evolution since 1700 centered here. Most literate Americans know east coast Quakers rather than the two-thirds of the 120,000 American Friends who live west of the Appalachians.

Quakers recorded unusually directly their individual religious experiences: the

____________________
Quakers whose names are asterisked (*) (when first mentioned and in the index) are those whose biography is included in Part Two.

-3-

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The Quakers
Table of contents

Table of contents

  • Recent Titles in Denominations in America ii
  • Title Page iii
  • Contents vii
  • Illustrations ix
  • Series Foreword xi
  • Preface xiii
  • Part One the Quakers: A History of Friends in America 1
  • 1: Introduction 3
  • 2: The Religious Setting of the Early Friends 11
  • 3 - The Lamb's War and the Awakening of the North of England 35
  • 4: Quaker Worship and Ethics and Their Transformation, 1652-1662 39
  • 5 - The Mission to America 58
  • 6: England, 1660-1689 61
  • 7: The Quaker Colonies 73
  • 8: A Tolerated Society of Friends 83
  • 9: A Spiritual Existence 95
  • 10: A Disciplined Christian Life 107
  • 11: Crisis and Reformation 119
  • 12: The American Revolutions 137
  • 13: Quaker Migrants to Carolina and the Midwest; Eastern Philanthropists 153
  • 14: Separations 169
  • 15: The Midcontinent in the Midcentury, 1828-1867 185
  • 16: West and Midwest, 1867- 1902 203
  • 17: The Liberal Transformation 219
  • 18: Suburban and College Friends 231
  • 19: Creativity in Peacemaking 247
  • 20: Social Service and Social Change, 1902-1970 261
  • 21: New Forms of Quaker Interaction, 1960-1987 271
  • Part Two a Biographical Dictionary of Former Quaker Leaders in America 281
  • A 285
  • B 287
  • C 301
  • D 311
  • E 313
  • F 315
  • G 321
  • H 327
  • J 337
  • K 343
  • L 347
  • M 351
  • P 357
  • R 363
  • S 365
  • T 369
  • U 371
  • V 373
  • W 375
  • Appendix: Chronology 381
  • Bibliographic Essay 385
  • Index 393
  • About the Authors 409
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