apart from their neighbors. Undoubtedly, many joined Friends by default. There
was no other church in the vicinity, and it was better to hear any minister than
be isolated, better to attend any service than be damned. But within the Meeting,
Quakerism molded attenders and members creating a distinctive style of life.
Even before the settlement of the Delaware River Valley, Quakerism had become
an important religious movement in North America.
Perry Miller, Errand into the Wilderness ( Cambridge, Mass.: 1956), 48-98.
Edmund Morgan, Roger Williams: The Church and the State ( New York: 1967); Edmund Morgan, The Puritan Dilemma: The Story of John Winthrop ( Boston: 1950), 115-33.
Morgan, Puritan Dilemma, 134-56; Kai Erikson, Wayward Puritans: A Study in
the Sociology of Deviance ( New York: 1966), 71-106; Emery Battis, Saints and Sectaries:
Anne Hutchinson and the Antinomian Controversy in Massachusetts Bay ( Chapel Hill, N.C.: 1962); David Hall, ed. The Antinomian Controversy, 1636-1638 ( Middletown, Conn., 1968).
George Bishop, New England Judged ( London: 1703); Erikson, Wayward Puritans, 107-36; and Arthur Worrall, Quakers in the Colonial Northeast ( Hanover, N.H.: 1980), 1-58, are general accounts of the Quaker invasion of Massachusetts. See also Mary Hoxie Jones, The Standard of the Lord Lifted Up (n.p.: 1961).
William Wayne Spurrier, "Persecution of the Quakers in England, 1650-1714"
(Ph.D. diss., University of North Carolina, 1976), contains a discussion of changing
Quaker attitudes toward persecution.
Rufus Jones, Quakers in the American Colonies ( New York: 1911; reprinted 1966), 50.
There were nineteen traveling visitors from England before 1660; forty-six between 1661 and 1684.
G. J. Willauer, Jr., "First Publishers of Truth in New England: A
Composite List," Quaker History (hereafter QH) 65 ( 1976): 39-44.
Jonathan Chu, Neighbors, Friends, or Madmen: The Puritan Adjustment to Quakerism in Seventeenth-Century Masachusetts Bay ( Westport, Conn.: 1985).
David Lovejoy, Religious Enthusiasm in the New World: Heresy to Revolution
( Cambridge, Mass.: 1985), is an excellent account of the radical religion in colonial America and includes a chapter on Massachusetts Bay, Rhode Island, and the Quakers.
Records of the Colony of Rhode Island and Providence Plantations, ed.
John R. Bartlett
( Providence, R.I.: 1856), I, 111, 150, 282, 396, 441; II, 111-12, 142.
Worrall, Quakers in the Colonial Northeast, 31-42. In 1676 Williams's account
of the debate was published in George Fox Digg'd out of his Burrowes. Perhaps enjoying
the pun, Friends replied in A New-England Fire-brand Quenched ( 1678).
An Account of all the Yearly, Quarterly, Monthly, and Particular Meetings of Friends in America, 1772, MS, Quaker Collection, Haverford College, Haverford Pa.
Sydney V. James, Colonial Rhode Island: A History ( New York: 1975), 188, 217-19.
Questia, a part of Gale, Cengage Learning. www.questia.com
Book title: The Quakers.
Contributors: Hugh Barbour - Author, J. William Frost - Author.
Publisher: Greenwood Press.
Place of publication: New York.
Publication year: 1988.
Page number: 58.
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