The Quakers

By Hugh Barbour; J. William Frost | Go to book overview

J

JANNEY, SAMUEL MCPHERSON ( 11 January 1801 Goose Creek, VA-- 30 April 1880, Lincoln, VA). Education: Local schools; independent reading; merchant apprentice. Career: Merchant; educator; historian; Indian Service superintendent.

Samuel Janney, a child of Quakers, received his primary education in school but obtained most of his knowledge of literature by reading. He refused for religious reasons to study Latin and the classics. At fourteen he was apprenticed to his uncle, a commission merchant and iron importer. Janney worked briefly as a clerk and merchant and in 1828 helped found a cotton factory in Occoquan, Virginia. Its failure left him a debt of $14,000 which he labored twenty years to pay off. In 1839 he opened a boarding school in Springdale, Virginia, where he taught and served as principal. His later life was spent in writing and traveling in the ministry.

As a child Janney had been religiously sensitive, but in 1824 he had a mystical experience. When the separation occurred, Janney sympathized with the Orthodox Quakers' theology but not their methods, and so he became a Hicksite. He insisted that early Friends had not believed in the vicarious atonement or the infallibility of the Bible, but he deplored the division that obscured an essential unity among all branches of the Society of Friends. In 1852 he suggested that the Baltimore (Maryland) Yearly Meeting initiate a more equitable division of property with the Orthodox, a proposal the Hicksites approved in 1864. In 1857 he attempted to reopen formal communication with the London Yearly Meeting. During his travels he conversed with Orthodox ministers, worshipped on occasion with the Orthodox, and welcomed them to his meetings.

In the 1820s Janney began antislavery activities. He was willing to consider colonization, but his primary effort was to help free Negroes gain legal rights and education, and he founded a school for them in Alexandria. As a Southerner

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The Quakers
Table of contents

Table of contents

  • Recent Titles in Denominations in America ii
  • Title Page iii
  • Contents vii
  • Illustrations ix
  • Series Foreword xi
  • Preface xiii
  • Part One the Quakers: A History of Friends in America 1
  • 1: Introduction 3
  • 2: The Religious Setting of the Early Friends 11
  • 3 - The Lamb's War and the Awakening of the North of England 35
  • 4: Quaker Worship and Ethics and Their Transformation, 1652-1662 39
  • 5 - The Mission to America 58
  • 6: England, 1660-1689 61
  • 7: The Quaker Colonies 73
  • 8: A Tolerated Society of Friends 83
  • 9: A Spiritual Existence 95
  • 10: A Disciplined Christian Life 107
  • 11: Crisis and Reformation 119
  • 12: The American Revolutions 137
  • 13: Quaker Migrants to Carolina and the Midwest; Eastern Philanthropists 153
  • 14: Separations 169
  • 15: The Midcontinent in the Midcentury, 1828-1867 185
  • 16: West and Midwest, 1867- 1902 203
  • 17: The Liberal Transformation 219
  • 18: Suburban and College Friends 231
  • 19: Creativity in Peacemaking 247
  • 20: Social Service and Social Change, 1902-1970 261
  • 21: New Forms of Quaker Interaction, 1960-1987 271
  • Part Two a Biographical Dictionary of Former Quaker Leaders in America 281
  • A 285
  • B 287
  • C 301
  • D 311
  • E 313
  • F 315
  • G 321
  • H 327
  • J 337
  • K 343
  • L 347
  • M 351
  • P 357
  • R 363
  • S 365
  • T 369
  • U 371
  • V 373
  • W 375
  • Appendix: Chronology 381
  • Bibliographic Essay 385
  • Index 393
  • About the Authors 409
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