Discovering the News: A Social History of American Newspapers

By Michael Schudson | Go to book overview

NOTES

Introduction
1
John W. C. Johnstone, Edward J. Slawski, and William M. Bowman, "The Professional Values of American Newsmen," Public Opinion Quarterly 36 ( Winter 1972-1973): 522-540; and, by the same authors, The News People ( Urbana: University of Illinois Press, 1976).
2
Donald L. Shaw, "News Bias and the Telegraph: A Study of Historical Change," Journalism Quarterly 44 ( Spring 1967): 3-12, 31.
3
Shaw suggests this in Shaw, "News Bias and the Telegraph" and in "Technology: Freedom for What?" in Ronald T. Farrar and John D. Stevens, Mass Media and the National Experience ( New York: Harper and Row, 1971), pp. 64-86. James W. Carey cautiously voices the same position in "The Communications Revolution and the Professional Communicator," Sociological Review Monograph 13 ( 1969): 23-38. Bernard Roscho espouses the same view in Newsmaking ( Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1975), p. 31.
4
From the seventeenth century until the past several decades, Wayne Booth wrote in 1974, "it grew increasingly unfashionable to see the universe or world or nature or 'the facts' as implicating values." But he argues that it is only in the twentieth century that "the fact-value split became a truism and that the split began to entail the helplessness of reason in dealing with any values but the calculation of means to ends." (See Wayne C. Booth, Modern Dogma and the Rhetoric of Assent [ Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1974], pp. 14-15.) Booth argues forcefully against a radical disjunction of facts and values as does the philosopher Alasdair MacIntyre in A Short History of Ethics ( New York: Macmillan, 1966) and Against the Self-Images of the Age ( New York: Schocken Books, 1971), especially the essay, "Hume on 'Is' and 'Ought,'" pp. 109-124.
5
Two influential recent statements regarding the social construction of reality are Thomas Kuhn, The Structure of Scientific Revolutions ( Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1962); and Peter Berger and Thomas Luckmann, The Social Construction of Reality ( Garden City, N.Y.: Doubleday, 1966).
6
This is the leading version of objectivity in science. Israel Scheffler has defined it as follows: "Commitment to fair controls over assertion is the basis of the scientific attitude of impartiality and detachment; indeed, one might say that it constitutes this attitude. For impartiality and detachment are not to be thought of as substantive qualities of the scientist's personality or the style of his thought; scientists are as variegated in these respects as any other group of people . . . . What is central is the acknowledgment of general controls to which one's dearest beliefs are ultimately subject.'' ( Israel Scheffler, Science and Subjectivity [ Indianapolis: Bobbs-Merrill, 1967], p. 2.)

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