The advertiser wants the advertised brand to be more strongly connected with something that is likely to be in our mind or in the product display at the time of purchase--something that will remind us of the brand or help it to be noticed for long enough to gain our consideration.
The main retrieval cue is the product category (name) because, almost by definition, this is in our minds when we are about to make a purchase. However, there are other cues--especially those that are likely to be encountered near or at the point of purchase (or sometimes consumption). These supplementary cues can be visual or verbal. The important thing is that something is included in the advertising that is also likely to be encountered at the point of purchase. Signs that tie in with the advertising, or a distinctive logo, pack shape or designer label that are included in (or tie in with) the advertising can all function in this way
As an example of a visual cue let us cite one very convincing experiment. A brand of breakfast cereal took a single-frame shot from its TV commercial and incorporated it prominently on the pack. This acted as an effective retrieval cue connecting the pack and the brand to what was in people's minds about the ad. It gave it a boost that helped that cereal break through the shelf-display clutter. 17
Advertisers who have built strong supplementary retrieval cues into their advertising rely correspondingly less on the connection between the product category and the brand to do all the work. 'Spreading activation' can bring the brand to mind by spreading out from the product category or the supplementary retrieval cue or both. This has implications for measuring the strength of not just one but all of these connections to the brand. In the evaluation of Kit Kat's advertising, for example, monitoring the strength of the association between the expression (e.g. 'Have a break) and Kit Kat is important as well as the association of Kit Kat with the product category itself.
This and the previous chapter have covered the main measures of ad effectiveness. This coverage is not completely exhaustive. There are other, less used ad measures but the main measures have been covered.
As we said at the outset, advertisers can get understandably confused about measures of ad effect. In the end it is behavior that they want to influence and therefore measures of behavior such as sales and market share are what they want to see moving. However desirable, changes in sales and market share are rarely sensitive enough and rarely sufficient in themselves to measure ad effectiveness. To capture advertising's immediate effects, it is