From Progressivism to Prosperity: World War I and American Society

By Neil A. Wynn | Go to book overview

its subject (ranging from political and religious matters to those of obscenity), during the war it became a widespread, national campaign focused on the issue of loyalty. 58 While this reflected the insecurity of a nation of immigrants, it was also a response to the disruption and change brought by the war itself; in the words of historian Charles Hirschfeld, the violence of the reaction was "an indication of the extent and intensity of the wartime departure from traditionial American norms." To some degree, the CPI and other agencies concerned with shaping public opinion were only part of a much greater change which affected American society—a "process of change that was destroying the old order, its ideals and values." 59


Notes
1.
Wilson to Cobb, quoted by Jerold S. Auerbach, "Woodrow Wilson's 'Prediction' to Frank Cobb: Words Historians Should Doubt Ever Got Spoken," Journal of American History 44, no. 3 ( December 1967): 615‐ 17; see also Arthur S. Link, Woodrow Wilson and the Progressive Era 1910-1917 ( New York, 1963), 277.
2.
Howard C. Hill, "The Americanization Movement," American Journal of Sociology 24, no. 6 ( May 1919): 612.
3.
Overman quoted in John F. McClymer, War and Welfare: Social Engineering in America, 1890-1925 ( Westport, Conn., and London, 1980), 114; Connecticut State Council of Defense Papers, LC.
4.
Edward Robb Ellis, Echoes of Distant Thunder: Life in the United States 1914-1918 ( New York, 1975), 180-90.
5.
Ellis, Echoes of Distant Thunder, 190; Albert Bushnell Hart, ed., Selected Addresses and Public Papers of Woodrow Wilson ( New York, 1918), 211.
6.
New York Times, 7, 8, 11 April 1917; Baker to Wilson, 30 April 1917, Newton D. Baker Papers, LC, Reel 2.
7.
Steven Jantzen, Hooray for Peace, Hurrah for War: The United States During World War I ( New York and Scarborough, Ontario, 1971), 150; David Starr Jordan, The Days of Man: Being Memories of a Naturalist Teacher and Minor Prophet of Democracy ( New York, 1922), II, 730-31, 734, 748-49.
8.
Barbara J. Steinson, American Women's Activism in World War I ( New York and London, 1982), 237; Marie Louise Degen, The History of the Woman's Peace Party, ( Baltimore, 1939; reprinted New York and London, 1972), 10-11; Jane Addams, Second Twenty Years at Hull House ( New York, 1930), 144-46.
9.
David A. Shannon, The Socialist Party of America ( New York, 1955), 97‐ 101; Norman Bindler, "American Socialism and the First World War," Ph.D. dissertation, New York University, 1970, 109-23; Oswald Garrison Villard , Fighting Years: Memoirs of a Liberal Editor ( New York, 1939), 327; Daniels Diary in Papers, 44, 49.

-61-

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From Progressivism to Prosperity: World War I and American Society
Table of contents

Table of contents

  • From Progressivism to Prosperity *
  • Contents vii
  • Acknowledgments ix
  • Note on Sources xi
  • Introduction War, Reform, and Social Change— the First World War in American History xiii
  • Notes xx
  • From Progressivism to Prosperity *
  • 1: The Progressive Era American Society, 1900-1914 1
  • Notes 23
  • 2: From Peace to War 1914-1917 26
  • Notes 38
  • 3: Mobilizing the Population for War Propaganda and Civil Liberties 41
  • Notes 61
  • 4: Organizing for War Government, Business, and the Economy 65
  • Notes 82
  • 5: Labor and the War 86
  • Notes 124
  • 6: War, Women, and the Family 133
  • Notes 163
  • 7: Black Americans and the First World War 170
  • Notes 191
  • 8: The Aftermath of War Reconstruction, Red Scare, and the 1920s 196
  • Notes 221
  • Epilogue from Progressivism to Prosperity: the First World War in Perspective 226
  • Notes 236
  • Bibliography 239
  • Index 257
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