Mencken, Prejudices, Fourth Series ( New York, 1924), pp. 78-79; Lippmann, A Preface to Morals ( New York, 1929), p. 12; Krutch, The Modern Temper ( New
York, 1956 [ 1929]), pp. 9, 16.
William R. Hutchison, The Modernist Impulse in American Protestantism ( Cambridge, Mass., 1976) makes a similar point, pp. 257-287. Hutchison's is the
most valuable study of the development of modernism in the period of this study.
Gray, "Modernism a Foe of Good Government," Moody Monthly XXIV ( July, 1924), p. 545; Bryan, "The Fundamentals," The Forum LXX ( July, 1923), from
excerpt in Willard B. Gatewood, Jr., ed., Controversy in the Twenties: Fundamentalism, Modernism, and Evolution ( Nashville, Tenn., 1969), p. 137; Machen, Christianity and Liberalism ( New York, 1923), p. 6. Gatewood's volume is a very
valuable collection of documents with perceptive introductions.
While militancy against modernism was the key distinguishing factor that drew
fundamentalists together, militancy was not necessarily the central trait of fundamentalists. Missions, evangelism, prayer, personal holiness, or a variety of
doctrinal concerns may often or usually have been their first interest. Yet, without militancy, none of these important aspects of the movement set it apart
See Chapters XXII-XXIV below on these interpretive traditions.
6. Sandeen, The Roots of Fundamentalism: British and American Millenarianism
1800-1930 ( Chicago, 1970). I have commented on Sandeen at greater length in " Defining Fundamentalism," Christian Scholar's Review I ( Winter, 1971), pp. 141‐
51; cf. Sandeen's reply, I ( Spring, 1971), pp. 227-232. See also comments on Sandeen in Chapter XXII of this volume. 7.
Cf. George Dollar who in A History of Fundamentalism in America ( Greenville,
S.C., 1973) has this strict separatist fundamentalist perspective of today and
agrees basically with Sandeen's definition.
LeRoy Moore, Jr., "Another Look at Fundamentalism: A Response to Ernest R.
Sandeen," Church History XXXVII ( June, 1968), pp. 195-202 makes this and
other valuable criticisms of an earlier statement of Sandeen's thesis.
In this approach I agree with C. Allyn Russell in his worthwhile volume Voices
of American Fundamentalism: Seven Biographical Studies ( Philadelphia, 1976).
Sydney E. Ahlstrom writes, "No aspect of American church history is more in
need of summary and yet so difficult to summarize as the movements of dissent
and reaction between the Civil War and World War I." A Religious History of
the American People ( New Haven, 1972), p. 823.