Feminisms of the Belle Epoque: A Historical and Literary Anthology

By Jennifer Waelti-Walters; Steven C. Hause | Go to book overview

GHÉNIA AVRIL
DE SAINTE-CROIX

One of the most noteworthy varieties of belle époque feminism was Protestant feminism. France had a Protestant population of approximately 620,000 at the beginning of the twentieth century. These 80,000 Lutherans and 540,000 Reformed Church Calvinists represented less than two percent of the population. Nonetheless throughout the late nineteenth century the Protestant minority had shaped many of the institutions and movements of France, including the women's rights movement. 1

The largest (by a huge margin) of the women's rights organizations of the early twentieth century was the Conseil national des femmes françaises ( the CNFF, National Council of French Women). It was a coalition of women's associations with a combined membership of 21,000 in 1901, when no other feminist league could claim 500 members; by 1914, the council had nearly 100,000 members, whereas all other feminist groups had a combined membership of 15,000. As a coalition, the CNFF represented French women from a wide variety of backgrounds, but the founders and leaders of the council, the women who shaped it and set its policies, came overwhelmingly from the elite of Protestant philanthropy. The coalition's first president, Sarah Monod ( 1901-12), and second president, Julie Siegfried ( 1912-22), were both daughters of Protestant pastors who devoted themselves to philanthropy. 2

Ghénia Avril de Sainte-Croix ( 1855-1939) was one of the animating spirits of the CNFF. 3 She joined Monod and Siegfried in founding the council and served as its secretary-general throughout the belle époque. She too came to feminism from the philanthropic background of the "HSP" (haute

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Feminisms of the Belle Epoque: A Historical and Literary Anthology
Table of contents

Table of contents

  • Feminisms of the Belle Epoque - A Historical and Literary Anthology *
  • Contents *
  • Acknowledgments *
  • Editor's Note *
  • Introduction *
  • I the Situation of Women *
  • Nelly Roussel *
  • Countess Pierre Lecointre *
  • ThÉrÈse Pottecher *
  • 2 Education *
  • Marcelle Tinayre *
  • Harlor *
  • Gabrielle Reval *
  • Louise-Marie Compain *
  • Charles ThiÉbaux *
  • Madeleine Pelletier *
  • 3 Work *
  • Clotilde Dissard *
  • Marie Bonnevial *
  • Louise-Marie Compain *
  • HÉlÈne Brion *
  • 4 Prostitution and the Double Standard *
  • GhÉnia Avril De Sainte-Croix *
  • Case Studies of Belle Epoque Prostitutes *
  • Madeleine Pelletier *
  • 5 Marriage and Male-Female Relations *
  • Hubertine Auclert *
  • LÉopold Lacour *
  • Louise-Marie Compain *
  • Colette Yver *
  • 6 Issues of Maternity *
  • Marcelle Tinayre *
  • Lucie Delarue-Mardrus *
  • Nelly Roussel *
  • Madeleine Pelletier *
  • 7 Political and Civic Rights *
  • Hubertine Auclert *
  • Nelly Roussel *
  • Appendixes *
  • Appendix One Feminist Periodicals of the Belle Epoque, 1890-1914 *
  • Appendix Two Other Translations of Feminist Writings from the Belle Epoque (following the Outline of This Book and Chronological Order) *
  • Bibliography *
  • Index *
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