N. Wiener, The Human Use of Humans:Cybernetics and Society ( Boston: Houghten Mifflin, 1954), 278.
The term epistemes is taken from the early work of Michel Foucault. It refers to
the historical (social, political, intellectual) conditions under which certain truths
and practices develop.
See "Got It:"After 17 years of searching, physicists believe they have found a
missing building block of matter, Newsweek 143( 19) ( May 9, 1994): 37-38.
See J. Buchanan "New Lexicons of Power in an Information Age", Technology in
D. Harraway, Simians, Cyborgs and Women:The Reinvention of Nature ( New
York: Routledge, 1991), 208.
R. Hubbard and
E. Wald, Exploding the Gene Myth:How Genetic Information
is Produced and Manipulated by Scientists, Physicians, Employers, Insurance
Companies, Educators, and Law Enforcers ( Boston: Beacon Press, 1993), 7.
F Bacon, 'De Augmentis'. In
R. Ellis, and
D. Heath, eds., Works,
Vol. 4 ( London: Longmans Green, 1870), 320.
A. Borgman, Technology and The Character of Contemporary Life ( Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1984).
The term 'bioindustry' is the term used collectively by those engaged in the
commercialization of genetic engineering. The umbrella organization which they
created to present their case is called The Bioindustry Forum.
See S. Krimsky, Biotechnics and Society:The rise of Industrial Genetics ( New
York: Praeger, 1991); and M. Kenney, Biotechnology:The University-Industrial
Complex ( New Haven: Yale University Press, 1986).
See for example P. Abelson, "Biotechnology in a Global Economy", Science 255
( 1992): 381.
V. Shiva, Monocultures of the Mind:Perspectives on Biodiversity and
Biotechnology ( Penang, Malaysia: Third World Network, 1993).
Hawkings himself has said that given the nature of his work and the kinds of
support he has received from friends and family that his physical disabilities have
not been a serious handicap. I want to go beyond this and at least pose the
possibility that his physical disabilities might have in fact contributed to his
For a good discussion of the new eugenics see R. Hubbard and
E. Wald, Exploding
the Gene Myth ( Boston: Beacon Press, 1993).