Italy: From Revolution to Republic, 1700 to the Present

By Spencer M. Di Scala | Go to book overview

3
The First War For Italian Unity

By the time Napoleon invaded Russia in 1812, he faced passive or outright opposition throughout his empire. A guerrilla war raged in Spain while in Italy widespread dislike of the Napoleonic order affected all regions and classes. The Continental System suffocated the middle class, which Napoleon’s economic and legislative reforms had initially stimulated; his desire to create loyal, apolitical functionaries and his aversion to persons with potential political programs alienated the rich bourgeoisie and nobility, the bedrock of his social stability policies; his fight with the Church culminated in the pope’s arrest and alienated the clergy. The peasantry, damaged by a pro-landowner and high tax policy, was now further exasperated by conscription and the heavy casualties of the Napoleonic Wars.

Nevertheless, French reforms and Italian reaction to them helped significantly in extending the principles of unity and independence for the peninsula. Italy remained rural, the peasants uneducated, and most Italians lacked a national consciousness, but if the desire for unity had previously taken root among radicals and influential intellectuals, it now spread to at least part of the middle class and would soon take on a life of its own. By creating new states, no matter how dependent, the French raised Italian national consciousness. Although it would not be true to say that the desire for unification was widespread among Italians, by 1812 they understood both the economic benefits that a larger trading area would bring and that France exploited a conquered Italy for its own purposes. For intellectuals at least, the jump from there to a demand for unification would not be a large one.


Growth of the Secret Societies

Since the Napoleonic police system prevented open opposition, Italians formed secret societies. Originating in eighteenth century Freemasonry, these societies had diverse political orientations, organizations, and rituals but became con

-34-

Notes for this page

Add a new note
If you are trying to select text to create highlights or citations, remember that you must now click or tap on the first word, and then click or tap on the last word.
One moment ...
Project items

Items saved from this book

This book has been saved
Highlights (0)
Some of your highlights are legacy items.

Highlights saved before July 30, 2012 will not be displayed on their respective source pages.

You can easily re-create the highlights by opening the book page or article, selecting the text, and clicking “Highlight.”

Citations (0)
Some of your citations are legacy items.

Any citation created before July 30, 2012 will labeled as a “Cited page.” New citations will be saved as cited passages, pages or articles.

We also added the ability to view new citations from your projects or the book or article where you created them.

Notes (0)
Bookmarks (0)

You have no saved items from this book

Project items include:
  • Saved book/article
  • Highlights
  • Quotes/citations
  • Notes
  • Bookmarks
Notes
Cite this page

Cited page

Style
Citations are available only to our active members.
Sign up now to cite pages or passages in MLA, APA and Chicago citation styles.

(Einhorn, 1992, p. 25)

(Einhorn 25)

1

1. Lois J. Einhorn, Abraham Lincoln, the Orator: Penetrating the Lincoln Legend (Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 1992), 25, http://www.questia.com/read/27419298.

Cited page

Bookmark this page
Italy: From Revolution to Republic, 1700 to the Present
Settings

Settings

Typeface
Text size Smaller Larger
Search within

Search within this book

Look up

Look up a word

  • Dictionary
  • Thesaurus
Please submit a word or phrase above.
Print this page

Print this page

Why can't I print more than one page at a time?

Full screen
/ 426

matching results for page

Cited passage

Style
Citations are available only to our active members.
Sign up now to cite pages or passages in MLA, APA and Chicago citation styles.

"Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences." (Einhorn, 1992, p. 25).

"Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences." (Einhorn 25)

"Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences."1

1. Lois J. Einhorn, Abraham Lincoln, the Orator: Penetrating the Lincoln Legend (Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 1992), 25, http://www.questia.com/read/27419298.

Cited passage

Welcome to the new Questia Reader

The Questia Reader has been updated to provide you with an even better online reading experience.  It is now 100% Responsive, which means you can read our books and articles on any sized device you wish.  All of your favorite tools like notes, highlights, and citations are still here, but the way you select text has been updated to be easier to use, especially on touchscreen devices.  Here's how:

1. Click or tap the first word you want to select.
2. Click or tap the last word you want to select.

OK, got it!

Thanks for trying Questia!

Please continue trying out our research tools, but please note, full functionality is available only to our active members.

Your work will be lost once you leave this Web page.

For full access in an ad-free environment, sign up now for a FREE, 1-day trial.

Already a member? Log in now.