which we find ourselves sees the just-war teaching and non-violence
as distinct but interdependent methods of evaluating warfare. They
diverge on some specific conclusions, but they share a common
presumption against the use of force as a means of settling disputes.
Both find their roots in the Christian theological tradition; each
contributes to the full moral vision we need in pursuit of a human
peace. We believe the two perspectives support and complement one
another, each preserving the other from distortion. Finally, in an age
of technological warfare, analysis from the viewpoint of non-violence
and analysis from the viewpoint of the just-war teaching often converge
and agree in their opposition to methods of warfare which are in
fact indistinguishable from total warfare.
Pastoral Constitution, 78.
John Paul II, World Day of Peace Message 1982, 9. The pastoral
constitution stresses that peace is not only the fruit of justice, but also love,
which commits us to engage in "the studied practice of brotherhood" (78).
Pastoral Constitution, 79.
Pius XII, Christmas Message 1948. The same theme is reiterated in Pius XII's Christmas Message of 1953: "The community of nations must
reckon with unprincipled criminals who, in order to realize their ambitious
plans, are not afraid to unleash total war. This is the reason why other
countries if they wish to preserve their very existence and their most precious
possessions, and unless they are prepared to accord free action to international
criminals, have no alternative but to get ready for the day when they must
defend themselves. This right to be prepared for self-defense cannot be denied,
even in these days, to any state."
Pastoral Constitution, 80.
John Paul II, World Day of Peace Message, 1982, 12; p. 478.
Augustine called it a Manichean heresy to assert that war is intrinsically
evil and contrary to Christian charity, and stated: "War and conquest are
a sad necessity in the eyes of men of principle, yet it would be still more
unfortunate if wrongdoers should dominate just men" ( The City of God,
Book IV, C. 15). Representative. surveys of the history and theology of the
just-war tradition include: F. H. Russell, The Just War in the Middle Ages
(N.Y.: 1975); P. Ramsey, War and the Christian Conscience ( Durham, N.C.: 1961), The Just War:Force and Political Responsibility (N.Y.: 1968); J. T. Johnson
, Ideology, Reason and the Limitation of War ( Princeton: 1975), Just
War Tradition and the Restraint of War:A Moral and Historical Inquiry
( Princeton: 1981); L. B. Walters, "Five Classic Just-War Theories" (Ph.D.
Questia, a part of Gale, Cengage Learning. www.questia.com
Book title: War, Morality, and the Military Profession.
Contributors: Malham M. Wakin - Author.
Publisher: Westview Press.
Place of publication: Boulder, CO.
Publication year: 1986.
Page number: 254.
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