War, Morality, and the Military Profession

By Malham M. Wakin | Go to book overview

attitudes and actions, for example, on the jus in bello which also expresses other enduring duties and obligations. Finally, I identified several unresolved issues in the application of just-war criteria, particularly their order, priorities, and weight. Theorists of just wars need to pay more attention to numerous issues including the bases, interrelations, and functions of their criteria. Otherwise, they will appear merely to posit traditional criteria without foundation and coherence. Of course, such issues constitute only part of the total agenda for just-war theorists in this age. Other critical issues of relevance and application also require attention, but they cannot be adequately addressed if we are not willing to face some of the ethical, philosophical, and theological questions that war raises. 42


Notes
1.
John Rawls, A Theory of Justice ( Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University, 1971) #58.
2.
James T. Johnson, "Just War Theory:"What's the Use? Worldview 19, nos. 7-8 ( July-August 1976) 41-47.
3.
See Frederick H. Russell, The Just War in the Middle Ages ( New York: Cambridge University, 1975); James T. Johnson, Ideology, Reason and the Limitation of War ( Princeton, N.J.: Princeton University, 1975); LeRoy Brandt Walters, Jr. , Five Classic Just-War Theories:A Study in the Thought of Thomas Aquinas, Vitoria, Suarez, Gentile, and Grotius (Ph.D. dissertation, Yale University, 1971).
4.
Ralph B. Potter, Jr., War and Moral Discourse ( Richmond, Va.: John Knox, 1969) 61. One of the best systematic examinations of just-war criteria is Potter's article "The Moral Logic of War", McCormick Quarterly 23 ( 1970) 203-33.
5.
Larry L. Rasmussen, Dietrich Bonhoeffer:Reality and Resistance ( New York: Abingdon, 1972), all of Part 2, but esp. pp. 145-46, 154-55.
6.
James Luther Adams, "Civil Disobedience:"Its Occasions and Limits, in Political and Legal Obligation:Nomos XII, ed. J. Roland Pennock and John W. Chapman ( New York: Atherton, 1970) 303. Cf. James F. Childress, Civil Disobedience and Political Obligations:A Study in Christian Social Ethics ( New Haven: Yale University, 1971)chap. 4.
7.
Paul Ramsey, Christian Ethics and the Sit-in ( New York: Association, 1961) 104. Cf. Paul Ramsey, War and the Christian Conscience ( Durham, N.C.: Duke University, 1961) and The Just War:Force and Political Responsibility ( New York: Scribner's 1968). For an attempt to apply just-war criteria to organ transplants on the grounds that both are instances of "the controlled use of regrettable violence," see James B. Nelson, Human Medicine ( Minneapolis: Augsburg, 1973)chap. 7.
8.
W. D. Ross, Foundations of Ethics ( Oxford: Clarendon, 1939) 86. Cf. Ross, The Right and the Good ( Oxford: Clarendon, 1930)chap. 2. "Prima

-272-

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