African American Women and the Vote, 1837-1965

By Ann D. Gordon; Bettye Collier-Thomas | Go to book overview
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Notes
1.
See Rosalyn Terborg-Penn, "Afro-Americans in the Struggle for Woman Suffrage" (Ph.D. diss., Howard University, 1977), appendixes.
2.
Commenting about my findings in a review of The Afro-American Woman (see n. 12 below), Bess Beatty said: "[Terborg-Penn] seems predisposed, however, to conclude that white women almost always discriminated, but black men were relatively equalitarian. Black post— Civil War newspapers are replete with evidence that many black men condemned women's rights and endorsed proscriptive stereotypes, evidence that Terborg- Penn generally ignores in reaching her conclusion" ( Journal of Southern History 45 ( May 1979): 304-5). I found no such sources in any of the post-Civil War black newspapers, despite my conscious attempts to locate them.
3.
Eleanor Flexner, Century of Struggle:The Woman's Rights Movement in the United States ( New York: Atheneum, 1973); Aileen S. Kraditor, The Ideas of the Woman Suffrage Movement, 1890-1920 ( Garden City, N.Y: Anchor/Doubleday, 1971).
4.
Benjamin Quarles, "Frederick Douglass and the Woman's Rights Movement", Journal of Negro History 25 ( January 1940): 35-44.
5.
Elizabeth Cady Stanton et al., eds., History of Woman Suffrage, 6 vols. (1881-1922; rpt., New York: Arno Press, 1969); Susan B. Anthony Papers, Manuscript Division, Library of Congress; Ida Husted Harper, Life and Work of Susan B. Anthony, 3 vols. ( Indianapolis: Hollenbeck Press, 1898, 1908).
6.
Helen Laura Sumner Woodbury, Equal Suffrage:The Results of an Investigation in Colorado, Made for the Collegiate Equal Suffrage League of New York State ( New York: Harper and Brothers, 1909), 70.
7.
Elinor Lerner, "Immigrant and Working Class Involvement in the New York City Woman Suffrage Movement, 1905-1917:"A Study in Progressive Era Politics (Ph.D. diss., University of California-Berkeley, 1981), 172, 391.
8.
Ellen Carol DuBois, Feminism and Suffrage:The Emergence of an Independent Women's Movement in America, 1848-1869 ( Ithaca, N.Y: Cornell University Press, 1978); Bettina Aptheker , Woman's Legacy:Essays on Race, Sex, and Class in American History ( Amherst: University of Massachusetts Press, 1982); Elisabeth Griffith, In Her Own Right:The Life of Elizabeth Cady Stanton ( New York: Oxford University Press, 1984).
9.
An exception to the male-focused studies of the movement is Vicki L. Crawford, Jac queline Anne Rouse , and Barbara Woods, eds., Women in the Civil Rights Movement: Trailblazers and Torchbearers, 1941-1965 ( Brooklyn, N.Y: Carlson Publishing, 1990). For visual evidence of black women participating in the movement, see the video based on Juan Williams's Eyes on the Prize:America's Civil Rights Years, 1954-1965 ( New York: Viking, 1987).
10.
Dorothy Sterling, ed., We Are Your Sisters:Black Women in the Nineteenth Century ( New York: W. W. Norton, 1984), 119.
11.
See, for example, James M. McPherson, The Struggle for Equality:Abolitionists and the Negro in the Civil War and Reconstruction ( Princeton, N.J.: Princeton University Press, 1964). This is one of the best accounts of the work of the abolitionists in that it does include black men and white women.
12.
See Rosalyn Terborg-Penn, "Discrimination against Afro-American Women in theWoman's Movement, 1830-1920"

-22-

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