African American Women and the Vote, 1837-1965

By Ann D. Gordon; Bettye Collier-Thomas | Go to book overview
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It is, then, within the decades before the Civil War that African American women envisioned a universe in which they were not relegated to a sphere of powerlessness, In moving to make that world a reality, they empowered and reinvented themselves as political activists. Relying on traditional tactics and moving into new arenas, they helped to lay the foundation for activists of succeeding generations.


Notes
1
James B. Browning, "The Beginnings of Insurance Enterprise among Negroes", Journal of Negro History 22 ( October 1937): 417, 422-23, 428, 429; Leonard P. Curry, The Free Black in Urban America, 1800-1850:The Shadow of the Dream ( Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1981), 197-200; Rosalyn Terborg-Penn, "Black Male Perspectives on the Nineteenth-Century Woman", in The Afro-American Woman:Struggles and Images, ed. Sharon Harley and Rosalyn Terborg-Penn (Port Washington, N.Y.: Kennikat Press, 1978), 29; Emma Jones Lapsansky. "South Street Philadelphia, 1762-1854:"A Haven for Those Low in the World (Ph.D. diss., University of Pennsylvania, 1975), 231, 240-45, 265.
2
Gary B. Nash, Forging Freedom:The Formation of Philadelphia's Black Community, 1720- 1840 ( Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press, 1988), 98, 210-11.
3
Daughters of Africa Society Order Book, Historical Society of Pennsylvania, in Dorothy Sterling , ed., We Are Your Sisters:Black Women in the Nineteenth Century ( New York: W. W. Norton, 1984), 105-7.
4
Facts on Beneficial Societies, 1823-1838, in Minutes of Pennsylvania Abolition Society, Historical Society of Pennsylvania; Curry, Free Black, 199-201; Sterling, We Are Your Sisters, 184.
5
Emma Jones Lapsansky, "Friends, Wives, and Strivings:"Networks and Community Values among Nineteenth-Century Philadelphia Afroamerican Elites, Pennsylvania Magazine of History and Biography 108 ( January 1984): 8-9; Rosetta Douglass Sprague, "Anna Murray Douglass—My Mother as I Recall Her", Journal of Negro History 8 ( January 1923): 96, 100; Frederick Douglass, The Life and Times of Frederick Douglass:Written By Himself ( 1998; rpt., New York: Bonanza Books, 1962), 232-58.
6
Nash, Forging Freedom, 152, 251-53; Sharon Harley and Rosalyn Terborg-Penn, "Northern Black Female Workers:"The Jacksonian Era, in Harley and Terborg-Penn, AfroAmerican Woman, 10-11.
7
Sarah Douglass to Charles Weld, 1 June 1876, Weld-Grimké Papers, Clements Library, University of Michigan, in Sterling, We Are Your Sisters, 133; Lydia Maria Child to Jonathan Phillips, 23 January 1838, William Phillips, Jr., Collection, Salisbury, Conn., in ibid., 184-86; James Oliver Horton, "Generations of Protest:"Black Families and Social Reform in Ante-Bellum Boston, New England Quarterly 49 ( June 1976): 247-48.
8
Herbert Aptheker, One Continual Cry:David Walker's Appeal to the Colored Citizens of the World, 1829-1830 ( New York: Published for the A.I.M.S. by Humanities Press, 1965), 27-28, 36-37; also see Dorothy Burnett Porter, comp., Negro Protest Pamphlets: A Compendium ( New York: Arno Press, 1969).

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