African American Women and the Vote, 1837-1965

By Ann D. Gordon; Bettye Collier-Thomas | Go to book overview
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It is, then, within the decades before the Civil War that African American women envisioned a universe in which they were not relegated to a sphere of powerlessness, In moving to make that world a reality, they empowered and reinvented themselves as political activists. Relying on traditional tactics and moving into new arenas, they helped to lay the foundation for activists of succeeding generations.

James B. Browning, "The Beginnings of Insurance Enterprise among Negroes", Journal of Negro History 22 ( October 1937): 417, 422-23, 428, 429; Leonard P. Curry, The Free Black in Urban America, 1800-1850:The Shadow of the Dream ( Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1981), 197-200; Rosalyn Terborg-Penn, "Black Male Perspectives on the Nineteenth-Century Woman", in The Afro-American Woman:Struggles and Images, ed. Sharon Harley and Rosalyn Terborg-Penn (Port Washington, N.Y.: Kennikat Press, 1978), 29; Emma Jones Lapsansky. "South Street Philadelphia, 1762-1854:"A Haven for Those Low in the World (Ph.D. diss., University of Pennsylvania, 1975), 231, 240-45, 265.
Gary B. Nash, Forging Freedom:The Formation of Philadelphia's Black Community, 1720- 1840 ( Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press, 1988), 98, 210-11.
Daughters of Africa Society Order Book, Historical Society of Pennsylvania, in Dorothy Sterling , ed., We Are Your Sisters:Black Women in the Nineteenth Century ( New York: W. W. Norton, 1984), 105-7.
Facts on Beneficial Societies, 1823-1838, in Minutes of Pennsylvania Abolition Society, Historical Society of Pennsylvania; Curry, Free Black, 199-201; Sterling, We Are Your Sisters, 184.
Emma Jones Lapsansky, "Friends, Wives, and Strivings:"Networks and Community Values among Nineteenth-Century Philadelphia Afroamerican Elites, Pennsylvania Magazine of History and Biography 108 ( January 1984): 8-9; Rosetta Douglass Sprague, "Anna Murray Douglass—My Mother as I Recall Her", Journal of Negro History 8 ( January 1923): 96, 100; Frederick Douglass, The Life and Times of Frederick Douglass:Written By Himself ( 1998; rpt., New York: Bonanza Books, 1962), 232-58.
Nash, Forging Freedom, 152, 251-53; Sharon Harley and Rosalyn Terborg-Penn, "Northern Black Female Workers:"The Jacksonian Era, in Harley and Terborg-Penn, AfroAmerican Woman, 10-11.
Sarah Douglass to Charles Weld, 1 June 1876, Weld-Grimké Papers, Clements Library, University of Michigan, in Sterling, We Are Your Sisters, 133; Lydia Maria Child to Jonathan Phillips, 23 January 1838, William Phillips, Jr., Collection, Salisbury, Conn., in ibid., 184-86; James Oliver Horton, "Generations of Protest:"Black Families and Social Reform in Ante-Bellum Boston, New England Quarterly 49 ( June 1976): 247-48.
Herbert Aptheker, One Continual Cry:David Walker's Appeal to the Colored Citizens of the World, 1829-1830 ( New York: Published for the A.I.M.S. by Humanities Press, 1965), 27-28, 36-37; also see Dorothy Burnett Porter, comp., Negro Protest Pamphlets: A Compendium ( New York: Arno Press, 1969).


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