It is, then, within the decades before the Civil War that African American
women envisioned a universe in which they were not relegated to a sphere of
powerlessness, In moving to make that world a reality, they empowered and
reinvented themselves as political activists. Relying on traditional tactics and
moving into new arenas, they helped to lay the foundation for activists of
James B. Browning, "The Beginnings of Insurance Enterprise among Negroes", Journal
of Negro History 22 ( October 1937): 417, 422-23, 428, 429; Leonard P. Curry, The Free
Black in Urban America, 1800-1850:The Shadow of the Dream ( Chicago: University of
Chicago Press, 1981), 197-200; Rosalyn Terborg-Penn, "Black Male Perspectives on the
Nineteenth-Century Woman", in The Afro-American Woman:Struggles and Images, ed. Sharon Harley and
Rosalyn Terborg-Penn (Port Washington, N.Y.: Kennikat Press, 1978), 29; Emma Jones Lapsansky. "South Street Philadelphia, 1762-1854:"A Haven for
Those Low in the World (Ph.D. diss., University of Pennsylvania, 1975), 231, 240-45, 265.
Gary B. Nash, Forging Freedom:The Formation of Philadelphia's Black Community, 1720-
1840 ( Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press, 1988), 98, 210-11.
Daughters of Africa Society Order Book, Historical Society of Pennsylvania, in
, ed., We Are Your Sisters:Black Women in the Nineteenth Century ( New York: W. W. Norton, 1984), 105-7.
Facts on Beneficial Societies, 1823-1838, in Minutes of Pennsylvania Abolition Society, Historical Society of Pennsylvania; Curry, Free Black, 199-201; Sterling, We Are Your
Emma Jones Lapsansky, "Friends, Wives, and Strivings:"Networks and Community
Values among Nineteenth-Century Philadelphia Afroamerican Elites, Pennsylvania
Magazine of History and Biography 108 ( January 1984): 8-9; Rosetta Douglass Sprague, "Anna Murray Douglass—My Mother as I Recall Her", Journal of Negro History 8 ( January 1923): 96, 100; Frederick Douglass, The Life and Times of Frederick Douglass:Written
By Himself ( 1998; rpt., New York: Bonanza Books, 1962), 232-58.
Nash, Forging Freedom, 152, 251-53; Sharon Harley and
Rosalyn Terborg-Penn, "Northern Black Female Workers:"The Jacksonian Era, in
Terborg-Penn, AfroAmerican Woman, 10-11.
7 Sarah Douglass to Charles Weld, 1 June 1876, Weld-Grimké Papers, Clements Library,
University of Michigan, in Sterling, We Are Your Sisters, 133; Lydia Maria Child to
Jonathan Phillips, 23 January 1838,
William Phillips, Jr., Collection, Salisbury, Conn., in ibid., 184-86; James Oliver Horton, "Generations of Protest:"Black Families and Social
Reform in Ante-Bellum Boston, New England Quarterly 49 ( June 1976): 247-48. 8
Herbert Aptheker, One Continual Cry:David Walker's Appeal to the Colored Citizens of
the World, 1829-1830 ( New York: Published for the A.I.M.S. by Humanities Press, 1965), 27-28, 36-37; also see Dorothy Burnett Porter, comp., Negro Protest Pamphlets: A Compendium ( New York: Arno Press, 1969).
Questia, a part of Gale, Cengage Learning. www.questia.com
Book title: African American Women and the Vote, 1837-1965.
Contributors: Ann D. Gordon - Author, Bettye Collier-Thomas - Author.
Publisher: University of Massachusetts Press.
Place of publication: Amherst, MA.
Publication year: 1997.
Page number: 38.
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