THE MONROE DOCTRINE, ALLIED DOCTRINES, AND
French intervention in Mexico--Chile and Mexico on the Monroe Doctrine--The boundary dispute between Venezuela and Great Britain--Hispanic-American approval of Cleveland's policy--Intervention in Cuba-The Blockade of Venezuela by European powers--The Calvo and Drago Doctrines--The "Roosevelt corollary of the Monroe Doctrine "--Fiscal intervention by the United States in the Dominican Republic--The Second Hague Conference and the forcible collection of public debts--The Tobar Doctrine--The Central American Peace Conference of 1907--Interposition in Central America--The Magdalena Bay Resolution--García Calderón and Oliveira Lima on intervention and the Monroe Doctrine--" Watchful waiting" and the Mexican imbroglio.
For many years after the Old World and the New were startled by the Monroe Doctrine no occasion arose which imperatively demanded the application of that doctrine to Hispanic America. Yet from time to time American statesmen expressed their opinions concerning its scope and content. After the middle of the nineteenth century some significant interpretations and applications of that elastic doctrine were made. In this chapter we shall devote some attention to the reactions which those applications produced in Hispanic-American states. A significant case that involved an application of the Monroe Doctrine resulted from the policy which three European powers adopted toward Mexico when the United States was being torn by the Civil War.
It was with an appreciation of historic values that the gifted American cartoonist, Thomas Nast, depicted Napoleon III attired in the discarded clothes of Napoleon 1. European intervention in Mexico took its origins from an attempt by France, in conjunction with England and Spain, to enforce the payment of troublesome pecuniary claims. In July, 1861, at the close of a civil war, the Mexican government decided that it would suspend payments on its foreign "debts" for two years. Some of