New Jersey: A Guide to Its Present and Past

By Federal Writers' Project (N.J.) | Go to book overview

Agriculture

NEW JERSEY is rightly called "The Garden State." Its truck-farms, extending from the northern mountains to the southern plain, are mere garden patches when compared with the western prairies or southern plantations. But these gardens produce a large proportion of the fruits and vegetables consumed in New York and Philadelphia. For these millions as well as for its own, New Jersey has developed exceptionally prosperous small farms and some of the highest types of agricultural specialization.

The State has three main soil and topographical farm belts. Underlain largely with limestone and other glacial rock, the northern counties are hilly and in some places even mountainous. Here dairying and the raising of grains and other field crops predominate, with scattered centers for market gardening. Although found in all sections of the State, commercial poultry farms are concentrated in the northern and central areas.

In the middle counties are fertile loam lands, level or rolling, with a rich subsoil of greensand marl. Of first rank in this section are truck crops and potatoes. Grain, hay, fruits, and milk are secondary.

The southern counties of the level sandy coastal area contain, in addition to a broad expanse of pine barrens, large fertile areas that yield excellent apples, peaches, cranberries, and other small fruits and vegetables. Peach blossoms in Burlington and Cumberland Counties make this section the agricultural show-place of the State in spring.

When the early settlers arrived they found the Indians growing corn, pumpkins, gourds, tobacco, and beans. Taking a lesson from the natives, they cleared the lands, and with the help of seeds and livestock imported from the old country, soon made New Jersey an important agricultural colony.

Although its large wheat yield ranked New Jersey as one of the "bread colonies" before the Revolution, the farmers were already anticipating the present-day variety in products. Large farms had been established in the south on which Negro slaves performed most of the work. This system

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New Jersey: A Guide to Its Present and Past
Table of contents

Table of contents

  • Title Page iii
  • Sponsors' Forewords v
  • Preface vii
  • Contents xi
  • Illustrations xv
  • Maps xxi
  • General Information xxiii
  • Calendar of Events xxix
  • Part I - New Jersey: the General View 1
  • A New Jersey Silhouette 3
  • Natural Setting 7
  • Archeology and Indians 28
  • History 35
  • Government 55
  • Industry and Commerce 69
  • Labor 79
  • Agriculture 89
  • The Press 110
  • Racial and National Groups 118
  • Folklore and Folkways 126
  • Education 134
  • Religion 142
  • The Arts 151
  • Part II - Cities and Towns 187
  • Atlantic City 189
  • Bayonne 201
  • Bordentown 207
  • Burlington 216
  • Camden 225
  • Elizabeth 238
  • Freehold 250
  • Hackensack 256
  • Hoboken 262
  • Jersey City 270
  • Morristown 283
  • Mount Holly 292
  • New Brunswick 298
  • Newark 312
  • The Oranges and Maplewood 339
  • Passaic 345
  • Paterson 349
  • Perth Amboy 361
  • Princeton 370
  • Salem 390
  • Trenton 398
  • Part III - Tours 415
  • Part IV - Appendices 687
  • Bibliography 697
  • Index 705
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