The Influence of the Cinema on Children and Adolescents: An Annotated International Bibliography

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4. THE PROCESS OF SEEING A FILM

(a) PERCEPTION AND COMPREHENSION
OF FILMS

129. Aibauer, Rosa. Zur Sittlichen Beurteilung von Filmen. Test mit 10-14 Jahrigen Mädchen uber Teufelskerle. the moral evaluation of films. A test with 10-14 year-old girls concerning the film "Teufelskerle" (Boys' Town)]. In: Film, Jugend, Schule, Gelsenkirchen, (45), July 1954, 6 p.

An investigation of the moral evaluation of a film by a group of 32 girls between 10 and 14 years of age, parallel to and comparable with the investigation concerning a similar group of boys reported by Roessler, E. and W., (see no. 140). After the screening of the film "Teufelskerle" ( Boys' Town), the girls were asked to relate or draw events from the film. They were then asked a number of questions on how they had liked the film, which rôle they would have liked to play themselves, if they would like to take part in the film, which scenes they had found especially exciting or boring, etc. All 32 girls gave a detailed answer to the question: "What does the film mean to convey to the spectator? ", and most girls had completely understood the sense of the film. In many points, the girls' moral evaluation of the principal actors and their behaviour was found to differ from that of boys.

130. Albertini, Laura and Caruso, Ada P.Percezione e interpretazione di imagini cinematografiche nei ragazzi.[ Perception and interpretation of film images by children.] In: Bianco e Nero, Rome, ( X), 5 May 1949, p. 9-27. Also in: Baumgarten, Franziska, Compte rendu du lle Congrès international de psychotechnique, Berne, 12-17 September 1949. La psychotechnique dans le monde moderne. Paris, Presses Universitaires de France, 1952, p. 557-561.

A study of the reactions of 576 children, aged 8 to 14, to Flaherty's film "Nanook". Four hundred and ninety children were questioned: 86 made unsolicited comments. Particularly apparent were the many errors in observation and the discrepancy between what actually occurred in the film and what the children thought they had seen. The rapid succession of images, the inability to understand clearly, to compare precisely and to interpret exactly when drawing up a report has the following results for children: real difficulties in making accurate comparisons as to sizes and likenesses, in recognizing regular geometric forms, in establishing the position of persons in relation to a known object, and in interpreting some of their movements and attitudes. Such difficulties as these do not seem to lessen proportionately as the child grows older. Further research is recommended to study the choice of motion-pictures for children of different age groups.

131. Brandt, Herman P.The Psychology of Seeing Motion Pictures. In: Elliott, Godfrey M.: Film and Education, New York, Philosophical Library, 1948, p. 39-54.

Deals with "seeing" film as physical, physiological and psychological process and the similarities and differences between the action of the human eye and the film camera; the sensorial and motor processes which play a rôle during the viewing of a film; perception as an activity of attention; selection and arrangement of impressions, and of the most important movements of the eye during the viewing of a film and the general rules appertaining to them. A comparison is then made between the reaction (orientation, concentration, relaxation and active participation) to a still and a moving picture. A number of conditions concerning film performances are formulated, so that greatest possible participation by the spectator can be attained.

132. Brinkmann, Donald. Jugend und Film. /Youth and Film.] In: Reformierte Schweiz, Pfaffikon-Zurich, ( 11), November 1956, p. 400-403.

Develops several ideas for discussion at a study week on youth and film, held in Zurich in 1956. Arising from numerous observations in Switzerland and other countries, four stages have been distinguished in young people's development which are significant for an understanding of their reactions to film: (1) Up to 7 years of age (called the fairy‐ tale age) children live in an imaginary world in which they do not clearly distinguish between subject and object, self and surroundings, dream and reality. (2) Between 7 and 12 realistic experience makes its appearance. This is the so-called "Robinson" age, in which interest is mainly in adventure. (3) Between 12 and 16 (age of puberty) the child's personality develops and he learns to distinguish "self" from his surroundings. Conflicts

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