The Influence of the Cinema on Children and Adolescents: An Annotated International Bibliography

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5. INFLUENCES AND AFTER-EFFECTS OF FILMS

(a) THE INFLUENCE OF FILMS ON GENERAL
KNOWLEDGE, IDEAS AND ATTITUDES

188. Bruner, Jerome S. and Fowler, George. The Strategy of Terror; Audience Response to "Blitzkrieg im Westen". In: Journal of Abnormal and Social Psychology, Boston, 36, October 1941.

A study of the reactions of a student audience between 19 and 23 years of age to the German propaganda film "Blitzkrieg im Westen" screened in the United States of America before that country went to war with Germany.After the screening a questionnaire was submitted to the 1,300 persons present, 260 of whom supplied answers. On the basis of these answers, the spectators were divided into four groups: (1) the belligerents who would have liked to go to war against the German; (2) the passive defeatists; (3) the frightened alarmists and (4) the indifferent. The propaganda influence of this film appeared to be different in each of the four groups. The first were strongly in favour of United States intervention in the war and were the least receptive to the idea that resistance to the German Wehrmacht was futile. The second group (to which a number of pro-Germans belonged) felt that there was no sense in offering resistance to the German army.The third group was convinced, during the showing of the film, of German supre macy but this feeling disappeared afterwards. The fourth group remained uninfluenced.

189. Cressey, Paul G./ "The/ Influence of Moving Pictures on Students in India". In: American Journal of Sociology, Chicago, XLI ( 3), November 1935, p. 341-350.

A study of the influence of films of western origin on university students in India. A questionnaire was submitted to 233 university students (148 men, 85 women) in different parts of India, relating to (1) film preferences, particularly with regard to American and British films; (2) the influence of films on behaviour and opinions. These students were found to attend the cinema 1.5 to 3.7 times a month; this is probably higher than average cinema attendance by students in India. The responses to the questionnaire revealed a preference for films giving insight into western living conditions. Students who do not go often to the cinema frequently prefer Indian films. With regard to the influence of films on behaviour and opinions, most of the students declared that it was superficial and that their fundamental social attitudes remained untouched, except for a desire for greater freedom in social relations. This did not lead, however, to revolt against traditional family organization. The effect of American films on their appreciation of America is ambivalent; there is a respect for material gain but other aspects of American life are considered decadent. The influence of foreign films is limited by the great cultural differences between east and west. Female students are less influenced by western films than are male students because the former are more conservative and attend the cinema less frequently.

190.Evans, Frederick. War Films and Child Opinion. In: Discovery Reports, Cambridge, July 1939, p. 345-360.

An account of an examination of the effect on schoolchildren of war reportage films from the First World War. A distinct difference was found between the first spontaneous reactions of the children and their replies to a questionnaire. These replies were much more in agreement with the terms of anti-war school education. Children are largely resistant to what adults consider to be war propaganda.

191. Feo, G. de.Les impressions des jeunes sur les films de guerre. [ "The reactions of young people to war films".] In: Revue internationale du cinéma éducateur, Rome, V ( 1-4), January, February, March and April 1933, p. 39-52; 135-143; 217-224; 315-319.

An inquiry into the reaction of young people to war films in Belgium. Of the 4,846 answers received, 4,441 were from French-speaking pupils (2,764 boys and 1,677 girls), and 405 were from Flemish‐ speaking pupils (349 boys and 56 girls).

The following reactions to war films were observed:

French
Flemish
1. Patriotic or belligerent feelings 1,501
143
2. Pacifist feelings 1,436
112
3. Vague answers 427

4. Critical comments 641
113
5. Political comments 94
11
6. Appreciation of educational value 341
6

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