MY CHIEF DEBT is to those students with whom I have had the privilege of working and from whose own research I have learned so much about bureaucracy and administration. Their theses, books, and articles are cited in the chapters that follow, but I learned far more from them than the conventions of scholarly citation can convey.
Much of the research of these people as well as most of my own was supported for many years by grants from the Alfred Sloan Foundation, first to Harvard and then to UCLA. Its vice president, Arthur Singer, early on took an interest in my efforts to learn more about public management and gave me steadfast encouragement and financial support. I am immensely grateful to Art, a man I regard as the perfect foundation executive: intelligent, interested, patient, and tolerant.
Several colleagues have read the entire book and given me their comments: Edward C. Banfield, Peter B. Clark, Martha Derthick, John J. DiIulio, Jr., Elisabeth Langby, Terry Moe, and John Tierney. Others have read selected chapters on which they are particularly knowledgeable: Joel Aberbach, Eliot Cohen, Morris Fiorina, Christopher Foreman, J. Ronald Fox, Bernard Frieden, Richard Helms, Norris Hogans, Robert Katzmann, Arthur Maass, Shep Melnick, Jeremy Rabkin, Susan Rainville, Stephen Rosen, Gary Schmitt, Kevin Sheehan, Curtis J. Smith, Nina Stewart, and Charles Wolf. Despite their advice, I have insisted on retaining the errors and omissions that no doubt pervade the pages that follow.
Three scholars undertook for me research into agencies and issues on which they are expert: Christopher Foreman, Robert Katzmann, and John Tierney. I am grateful for their willingness to take time from their busy schedules to enlighten me on matters about which a Californian cannot know much without moving back East to study them firsthand, and that is a price no real Californian would ever pay. I am also indebted to Martha Derthick and Steven Kelman for allowing me to read their (then) unpublished manuscripts on, respectively, the Social Security Administration and federal procurement policies.
I received valuable research assistance from Julia Watt Liebeskind and Carlos Juarez.