The World Trade Organization and the Environment

By P. K. Rao | Go to book overview

3
Multilateral Environmental Agreements

3.1
Introduction

Various MEAs have been worked out from time to time during the past several decades, even before the notable 1972 Stockholm Conference on Human Environment (with its origins on sustainable development). There are currently about 200 MEAs which are addressed to solve the emerging global environmental problems. These have accelerated in their formulation and implementation since about the mid-1980s. In general, MEAs complement some of the international policy measures aimed at the upkeep and protection of environmental resources. Some of the MEAs impose prohibitions on trade, and a few others seek to modulate the methods of production via stipulations of process and product characteristics. This chapter examines some of the issues with particular focus on the interface of trade and environmental measures at the international levels.

The potential conflict between trade and environmental measures, and between developed and developing countries in devising cost- effective measures was recognized at the UNCED in 1992. Accordingly, the Agenda 21(Chapter 2) stated: 'account should be taken of the fact that environmental standards valid for developed countries may have unwarranted social and economic costs in developing countries'. However, Agenda 21 fell short on suggesting any operational guidelines. Trade and environment issues were proposed to be addressed separately in another forum.

Some of the major concerns in this chapter include the role of environmental trade measures in effecting environmental objectives,

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The World Trade Organization and the Environment
Table of contents

Table of contents

  • Title Page iii
  • Contents vii
  • List of Figures x
  • List of Boxes xi
  • Preface and Acknowledgements xiii
  • List of Abbreviations xv
  • Part I - Background 1
  • 1 - Global Trade Regimes 3
  • 1.5 - Concluding Observations 25
  • Appendix II - Gatt 1994 26
  • Appendix III - Regional Trade Regimes 27
  • References 28
  • 2 - Trade, Environment and Development 31
  • References 52
  • 3 - Multilateral Environmental Agreements 55
  • References 70
  • Part II - The World Trade Organization 73
  • 4 - Wto Articles of Agreement and Beyond 75
  • Appendix Ii: Wto Structure 90
  • Appendix Iii: Agreement on Tbt 91
  • References 93
  • 5 - Trade Policies and Environmental Provisions 95
  • Appendix I - Committee on Trade and Environment 114
  • Appendix II Extract of the Sps Agreement 115
  • References 117
  • 6 - Dispute Resolution Mechanisms 119
  • Appendix I - The Dispute Settlement Panel Process 132
  • Appendix II - Trade Disputes on Bananas 133
  • References 136
  • Part III - Policy Implications 139
  • 7 - International Trade and Environment: an Integration 141
  • References 162
  • 8 - New Role for the Wto 165
  • References 176
  • 9 - Towards a Better Future 177
  • References 181
  • Index 183
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