The World Trade Organization and the Environment

By P. K. Rao | Go to book overview

5.1 per cent) among developing countries. It is unlikely that the free market works as freely when the exporters are constrained by debts and repayment obligations in tight schedules. The ability of some of the exporters to adhere the PPP or other criteria remains is severely constrained. Multilateral trade policies under the WTO regime should address these issues on a much broader and clear footing than conducted so far.

The trade regimes governing (rather ungoverning) DPG is a continuing global environment-trade problem. The failure of the WT/CTE to come up specific multilateral trade rules could necessitate a separate MEA — somewhat similar to the Montreal Protocol to phase out the CFCs. This does not portend a great role for the WTO system. The lesser the WTO framework and its subsidiary organization appreciate the need for effective integration of trade and environmental issues, the greater the potential for this unique institution to be marginalized and undermined over a period of time. Hence the task lies ahead for the WTO to come up with greater timeliness and focus to the relevant principles and practices.


References

Bagwell, K. and R. Staiger ( 1999) "An economic theory of GATT", American Economic Review, 89.1, 215-48.

Beghin, J., D. Roland-Holst and D. van der Mensbrugghe ( 1994) "A survey of the trade and environment nexus — global dimensions", OECD Economic Studies #23, pp. 167-92, Paris: OECD Secretariat.

Bhagwati, J. ( 1993) "Trade and the environment — the false conflict?", in Zaelke et al. (1993), pp. 159-90.

Cameron, J. and J. Abouchar ( 1991) "The precautionary principle — a fundamental principle of law and policy for the protection of the global environment", Boston College International and Comparative Law Review, 14, 1-27.

Elliot, G. ( 1994) "Internalization of Environmental Costs and Implications for the Trading System", GATT Symposium on Trade, Environment and Sustainable Development, Geneva: GATT.

Francois, J. and K. Reinert (eds) ( 1994) Applied Trade Policy Modeling, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

IMF ( 1996) World Economic Outlook, Washington, DC: IMF.

Kapp, K. W. ( 1963) "Social costs of business enterprise", in Massarrat (1997), p. 30.

Low, P. ( 1993) Trading Free — the GATT and US Trade Policy, New York: The Twentieth Century Fund Press.

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The World Trade Organization and the Environment
Table of contents

Table of contents

  • Title Page iii
  • Contents vii
  • List of Figures x
  • List of Boxes xi
  • Preface and Acknowledgements xiii
  • List of Abbreviations xv
  • Part I - Background 1
  • 1 - Global Trade Regimes 3
  • 1.5 - Concluding Observations 25
  • Appendix II - Gatt 1994 26
  • Appendix III - Regional Trade Regimes 27
  • References 28
  • 2 - Trade, Environment and Development 31
  • References 52
  • 3 - Multilateral Environmental Agreements 55
  • References 70
  • Part II - The World Trade Organization 73
  • 4 - Wto Articles of Agreement and Beyond 75
  • Appendix Ii: Wto Structure 90
  • Appendix Iii: Agreement on Tbt 91
  • References 93
  • 5 - Trade Policies and Environmental Provisions 95
  • Appendix I - Committee on Trade and Environment 114
  • Appendix II Extract of the Sps Agreement 115
  • References 117
  • 6 - Dispute Resolution Mechanisms 119
  • Appendix I - The Dispute Settlement Panel Process 132
  • Appendix II - Trade Disputes on Bananas 133
  • References 136
  • Part III - Policy Implications 139
  • 7 - International Trade and Environment: an Integration 141
  • References 162
  • 8 - New Role for the Wto 165
  • References 176
  • 9 - Towards a Better Future 177
  • References 181
  • Index 183
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