To Create a New World? American Presidents and the United Nations

By John Allphin Moore Jr.; Jerry Pubantz | Go to book overview

Truman sided with the Arab states and small states that objected to French actions.

In the two months after Yalta, the State Department and the War Department worked through an Interdepartmental Committee on Dependent Areas to reconcile their deep differences. Unable to settle on a compromise position, the sides presented the alternatives to Roosevelt in early March. At a cabinet meeting on the ninth, the president decided that trusteeship in the Pacific would mean that "sovereignty would be vested in all of the United Nations, " 47 but the United States would seek authorization to administer the strategic islands in the region. He approved dividing designated trusteeship areas into "strategic" and "nonstrategic" territories, and limiting the role of the Trusteeship Council in those defined as strategic. On April 3 the administration revealed that at Yalta the parties had agreed to a trusteeship system as part of the new general international organization. Roosevelt scheduled a meeting for April 19 to finalize details of the American proposal. His death on the twelfth, and Truman's immediate decision to go ahead with the San Francisco Conference, meant that the new president would have to decide quickly on decolonization issues. Truman's personal inclination and the work completed to that point led him to endorse the distinction between strategic and nonstrategic territories in the proposed Charter, and to push forward with the Trusteeship Council's recommendation.


Onset of the Cold War

Complicating final resolution of issues at San Francisco was the atmosphere of tension developing in U.S.-Soviet relations during the spring of 1945. Even Roosevelt, who predicated so much on cooperation between the two powers, had expressed consternation at Stalin's actions in Eastern Europe. The Polish Question in particular undermined the spirit of goodwill evident at Yalta.

Less than two weeks after becoming president, Truman met with his advisers and made clear his intention to be tough with the Russians over Poland. 48 Stalin was reneging on the inclusion in the new government of Poles not part of the Lublin group. The American ambassador to the

____________________
47
Russell, History, 582.
48
Lloyd C. Gardner, Architects of Illusion ( Chicago: Quadrangle, 1970), 60-61.

-53-

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To Create a New World? American Presidents and the United Nations
Table of contents

Table of contents

  • To Create a New World? *
  • Table of Contents *
  • Preface *
  • Frequently Used Citations *
  • Introduction *
  • 1: To Create a New World? American "Exceptionalism" and the Origins of the United Nations *
  • Dismissing the United Nations 7
  • The United Nations at Half Century 10
  • Woodrow Wilson and American Idealism 12
  • Traditional Arrangements of International Politics 17
  • The Twentieth-Century Crisis 21
  • 2: The Founders *
  • Fdr and the Un *
  • Yalta 44
  • Truman and the Un 47
  • Onset of the Cold War 53
  • Korea 69
  • 3: The Cold Warriors *
  • The President, His Foreign Policy Team, and the Un 84
  • The "Eisenhower Model" 91
  • Superpower Confrontation and the United Nations, 1953-1969 95
  • Cold War Tensions and UN Institutions 112
  • Jfk and the Un 118
  • Lyndon Johnson and the Un 131
  • Disarmament and Development 143
  • 4: The Realists' Ascent *
  • Nixon and the Un 176
  • 1968 184
  • Nixon and Watergate 186
  • "Nixinger" Diplomacy 188
  • Vietnam and Nixon 193
  • India and Pakistan, 1971 196
  • China 199
  • Yom Kippur 203
  • President Ford's Interregnum 208
  • 5: Two Sides of Idealism *
  • Carter and Foreign Policy 214
  • Carter, Human Rights, and the Un 219
  • Carter, China, and the Ussr 229
  • Breakthrough at Camp David 234
  • Carter and Africa 241
  • The Iranian Hostage Nightmare 248
  • Reagan and the Un: Phase One 254
  • The Middle East, Reagan, and the Un 262
  • Reagan and the World 268
  • Iran-Contra 274
  • Gorbachev 276
  • Reagan and the Un: Phase Two 280
  • 6: The New Moralists *
  • President Bush's UN Odyssey 290
  • President Bush's Use of the Un 298
  • President Clinton: the New Moralism and the Demands of Politics 315
  • Conclusion *
  • Appendix a Secretaries-General of the Un *
  • Appendix B U.S. Ambassadors to the Un *
  • Bibliography *
  • Index *
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