To Create a New World? American Presidents and the United Nations

By John Allphin Moore Jr.; Jerry Pubantz | Go to book overview

and arbitrary. A man who had begun his second term seemingly unassailable was now in disgrace and out of office. 41


"Nixinger" Diplomacy

The covert nature of the Watergate scandal mirrored in some respects the style of diplomacy that Nixon and his closest adviser, Henry Kissinger, brought to the White House. This is not to say that secret activities, bypassing normal channels of decision-making, had not taken place, for example, in Johnson's or Kennedy's administration, but the Nixon White House brought a refinement, pursuing calculated tactics for developing policy and carrying it out in a way that centralized diplomatic authority in the White House; this administration used "back‐ channel" negotiations outside the purview of traditional institutions (including the State Department and the United Nations), did things in secret, and attempted to deal with the world unilaterally rather than multilaterally.

The Nixon administration's style of diplomacy has drawn considerable criticism. 42 The president's reliance on trusted staff members, particularly Kissinger, resulted in secret diplomacy often bypassing an out-of-the-loop State Department, headed by William Rogers. Enthusiasm for secrecy, covert action, and manipulation seemed to bring the president and his national security adviser together. 43 Kissinger, with the president's concurrence, quickly established himself in the White House as the main focus for foreign relations. His

____________________
41
For chronology and documents, see New York Times, The End of a Presidency ( New York: Bantam, 1974); and Stanley I. Kutler (ed.), Watergate: The Fall of Richard M. Nixon ( St. James, N.Y.: Brandywine, 1996). See also Stanley I. Kutler (ed.), Abuse of Power: The New Nixon Tapes ( New York: Free Press, 1997).
42
See, for example, Stephen E. Ambrose's three-volume study of Nixon, particularly the last two volumes, Nixon: The Triumph of a Politician, 1962-1972 ( New York: Simon and Schuster, 1989), and Nixon: Ruin and Recovery, 1973-1990 ( New York: Simon and Schuster, 1991); Tad Szulc, The Illusion of Peace: Foreign Policy in the Nixon Years ( New York: Viking, 1978); and William Bundy, A Tangled Web: The Making of Foreign Policy in the Nixon Presidency ( New York: Hill and Wang, 1998). For friendlier assessments, see Sulzberger, The World and Nixon; and Stoessinger, Kissinger.
43
Ambrose has written that the two shared a love of "secrecy and surprise, a strong sense of contempt for the bureaucracy, for established methods, for regular procedure. They were born conspirators." Nixon, II, 233.

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To Create a New World? American Presidents and the United Nations
Table of contents

Table of contents

  • To Create a New World? *
  • Table of Contents *
  • Preface *
  • Frequently Used Citations *
  • Introduction *
  • 1: To Create a New World? American "Exceptionalism" and the Origins of the United Nations *
  • Dismissing the United Nations 7
  • The United Nations at Half Century 10
  • Woodrow Wilson and American Idealism 12
  • Traditional Arrangements of International Politics 17
  • The Twentieth-Century Crisis 21
  • 2: The Founders *
  • Fdr and the Un *
  • Yalta 44
  • Truman and the Un 47
  • Onset of the Cold War 53
  • Korea 69
  • 3: The Cold Warriors *
  • The President, His Foreign Policy Team, and the Un 84
  • The "Eisenhower Model" 91
  • Superpower Confrontation and the United Nations, 1953-1969 95
  • Cold War Tensions and UN Institutions 112
  • Jfk and the Un 118
  • Lyndon Johnson and the Un 131
  • Disarmament and Development 143
  • 4: The Realists' Ascent *
  • Nixon and the Un 176
  • 1968 184
  • Nixon and Watergate 186
  • "Nixinger" Diplomacy 188
  • Vietnam and Nixon 193
  • India and Pakistan, 1971 196
  • China 199
  • Yom Kippur 203
  • President Ford's Interregnum 208
  • 5: Two Sides of Idealism *
  • Carter and Foreign Policy 214
  • Carter, Human Rights, and the Un 219
  • Carter, China, and the Ussr 229
  • Breakthrough at Camp David 234
  • Carter and Africa 241
  • The Iranian Hostage Nightmare 248
  • Reagan and the Un: Phase One 254
  • The Middle East, Reagan, and the Un 262
  • Reagan and the World 268
  • Iran-Contra 274
  • Gorbachev 276
  • Reagan and the Un: Phase Two 280
  • 6: The New Moralists *
  • President Bush's UN Odyssey 290
  • President Bush's Use of the Un 298
  • President Clinton: the New Moralism and the Demands of Politics 315
  • Conclusion *
  • Appendix a Secretaries-General of the Un *
  • Appendix B U.S. Ambassadors to the Un *
  • Bibliography *
  • Index *
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