To Create a New World? American Presidents and the United Nations

By John Allphin Moore Jr.; Jerry Pubantz | Go to book overview

The next day the UN-decreed cease-fire between India and Yahya Khan's forces went into effect. 67

Pakistan had been sundered in two, and the subcontinent would remain a flashpoint for the future. But, for the time, a wider war had been avoided. In the halls of the United Nations, stalwart efforts by the United States had produced Soviet-American cooperation and a multilateral resolution to a tough problem.


China

Nixon may well be judged in the long term for his diplomatic initiative with China. In retrospect, his approach to the Middle Kingdom is not as curious as some at the time thought. During his political exile in the 1960s, Nixon had spent considerable time thinking through major foreign policy challenges. His musings on China were revealed in an article he wrote in 1967 in Foreign Affairs. 68 He summarized his views by saying, "We simply cannot afford to leave China outside the family of nations." In his address before the General Assembly in 1969 he said, "Whenever the leaders of Communist China choose to abandon their self-imposed isolation, we are ready to talk with them in...[a] frank and serious spirit." 69

But revealing our receptiveness to mainland China's eventual entrance into the international community would have a serious impact on our traditional policy toward China. Since Mao Zedong's communist victory in the civil war against Generalissimo Chiang Kai-shek in 1949, the United States had firmly maintained recognition of Chiang's Nationalist regime, exiled on the island of Taiwan, as the legitimate government of China. We continually supported the seating of Taipei's representative as the permanent Chinese member of the United Nations, and opposed any effort to allow Mao's government into the organization. The intransigence of this policy derived from the fractious political debate that had raged after 1949, when Republicans accused the Truman administration of "losing" China. Nixon had been part of this political attack. The ensuing rise of "McCarthyism," the "red scare" of the 1950s, and China's support for North Korea in the Korean conflict all

____________________
67
For two differing interpretations of the story see Kissinger, White House Years, 861-914; and Ambrose, Nixon, II, 482-485.
68
" Asia After Vietnam," Foreign Affairs 46 ( October 1967): 121-124.
69
September 18, 1969, Item 365, PPP, 1969, 728.

-199-

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To Create a New World? American Presidents and the United Nations
Table of contents

Table of contents

  • To Create a New World? *
  • Table of Contents *
  • Preface *
  • Frequently Used Citations *
  • Introduction *
  • 1: To Create a New World? American "Exceptionalism" and the Origins of the United Nations *
  • Dismissing the United Nations 7
  • The United Nations at Half Century 10
  • Woodrow Wilson and American Idealism 12
  • Traditional Arrangements of International Politics 17
  • The Twentieth-Century Crisis 21
  • 2: The Founders *
  • Fdr and the Un *
  • Yalta 44
  • Truman and the Un 47
  • Onset of the Cold War 53
  • Korea 69
  • 3: The Cold Warriors *
  • The President, His Foreign Policy Team, and the Un 84
  • The "Eisenhower Model" 91
  • Superpower Confrontation and the United Nations, 1953-1969 95
  • Cold War Tensions and UN Institutions 112
  • Jfk and the Un 118
  • Lyndon Johnson and the Un 131
  • Disarmament and Development 143
  • 4: The Realists' Ascent *
  • Nixon and the Un 176
  • 1968 184
  • Nixon and Watergate 186
  • "Nixinger" Diplomacy 188
  • Vietnam and Nixon 193
  • India and Pakistan, 1971 196
  • China 199
  • Yom Kippur 203
  • President Ford's Interregnum 208
  • 5: Two Sides of Idealism *
  • Carter and Foreign Policy 214
  • Carter, Human Rights, and the Un 219
  • Carter, China, and the Ussr 229
  • Breakthrough at Camp David 234
  • Carter and Africa 241
  • The Iranian Hostage Nightmare 248
  • Reagan and the Un: Phase One 254
  • The Middle East, Reagan, and the Un 262
  • Reagan and the World 268
  • Iran-Contra 274
  • Gorbachev 276
  • Reagan and the Un: Phase Two 280
  • 6: The New Moralists *
  • President Bush's UN Odyssey 290
  • President Bush's Use of the Un 298
  • President Clinton: the New Moralism and the Demands of Politics 315
  • Conclusion *
  • Appendix a Secretaries-General of the Un *
  • Appendix B U.S. Ambassadors to the Un *
  • Bibliography *
  • Index *
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