Unpaid Professionals: Commercialism and Conflict in Big-Time College Sports

By Andrew Zimbalist | Go to book overview

Notes

Preface
1
These numbers refer to the share of the 1990–91 entering class which graduated within six years and are taken from the NCAA's 1997 NCAA Division I Graduation-Rates Report, Overland Park, Kansas, June 1997.
2
These GPA scores are averages for the players from the entering classes of 1993/94 through 1996/97; data, ibid.
3
These data refer to averages for entering classes for the years 1993/94 through 1996/97. A complementary explanation for the lower SAT scores for basketball and football players at Stanford is that there is probably a much higher proportion of ethnic minorities among them. As a private California school, Stanford is still able to practice affirmative action. Some schools are known to de-emphasize standardized test scores and rely more heavily on high school grades and letters of recommendation for minority students as part of their affirmative action effort. Robert Kinnally, the Dean of Admission and Financial Aid at Stanford, would not confirm or deny the existence of such a policy. He did, however, point out that the Stanford statement of admission criteria explicitly states that “the Department of Athletics may designate outstanding athletes for special attention.”

Chapter One
Epigraph: Hutchins is quoted in Richard Sheehan, Keeping Score: The Economics of Big Time Sports, South Bend, Indiana: Diamond Communications, 1996.
1
Chronicle of Higher Education, December 20, 1996, p. A35.
2
Jim Naughton, “Debate Over Championship Game in Football Reflects Larger Tensions in College Sports,” Chronicle of Higher Education, September 19, 1997.
3
Welch Suggs, “A Different Final Four to Win,” Kansas City Star, March 11, 1997, p. D1.
4
Mike McGraw et al., Money Games: Inside the NCAA, reprint from the Kansas City Star, 1997, p. 6.
5
Ibid., p. 2. In the summer of 1998 the NCAA issued new rules that limit the amount Final Four host cities can spend to $500,000. In March 1998 San Antonio had a budget of $1.2 million for hosting the Final Four. The apparent reason behind this limit is to help protect the investment of the NCAA's national corporate sponsor. The more local money spent, the more local sponsorship is needed and the more the national sponsor's presence is diluted.
6
Presumably, college sports also produce consumer surplus. Even though college sporting events employ price discrimination through ticket pricing and premiums (e.g., booster contributions), there are likely tens of thousands, if not millions, of fans who derive more utility from attending these events than it

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