Political Concepts and Political Theories

By Gerald F. Gaus | Go to book overview

eralism, socialism, or conservatism, we shall encounter versions of conservatism that embrace a type of rationalism, socialisms that advocate inequality, and liberalisms that are collectivist. Nevertheless, in the course of our analysis the family resemblance (Section 1.4) within each type of theory should reveal itself.


Notes

This chapter draws on the work of John W. Chapman, "Political Theory: Logical Structure and Enduring Types" in L'idée de philosophie politique: Annales de philosophie ( Paris: Presses Universitaires de France, 1965), pp. 57-96.

1.
Maurice Cranston, "Liberalism," in Paul Edwards, ed., The Encyclopedia of Philosophy ( New York: Macmillan and the Free Press, 1967).
2.
See Michael Freeden, Ideologies and Political Theory ( Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1996), chaps. 4 and 5.
3.
John Stuart Mill, On Liberty, in John Gray, ed., On Liberty and Other Essays ( New York: Oxford University Press, 1991), chap. 1, para. 9.
4.
John Stuart Mill, Auguste Comte and Positivism, in J. M. Robson, ed., The Collected Works of John Stuart Mill ( Toronto: University of Toronto Press, 1963), vol. 10, p. 339.
5.
E. A. Hayek, Law, Legislation and Liberty, vol. 3: The Political Order of a Free People ( London: Routledge and Kegan Paul, 1979), p. 5.
6.
Wilhelm von Humboldt, quoted in E. A. Hayek, The Constitution of Liberty ( London: Routledge and Kegan Paul, 1960), p. 394.
7.
L. T. Hobhouse, Liberalism ( New York: Oxford University Press, 1964), p. 87.
8.
Ibid., p. 62.
9.
Freeden, Ideologies and Political Theory, p. 430.
10.
Bernard Crick, Socialism (Milton Keynes, UK: Open University Press, 1987), p. 84.
11.
Kai Nielsen, Equality and Liberty: A Defense of Radical Egalitarianism (Totowa, NJ: Rowman and Allenheld, 1985), p. 201.
12.
Richard Norman, Free and Equal: A Philosophical Examination of Political Values ( Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1987), p. 1 33).
13.
Noël O'Sullivan, Conservatism ( London: Dent, 1976), p. 12.
14.
Edmund Burke, Reflections on the Revolution in France (Harmondsworth, UK: Penguin, 1968), p. 267.
15.
Robert Nisbet, Conservatism (Milton Keynes, UK: Open University Press, 1986), p. 47. Compare Freeden, Ideologies and Political Theory, p. 397.
16.
See, for example, my essay on "Liberalism," in Edward N. Zalta, ed., The Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy [online at http: // plato.stanford.edu].
17.
This list is given by Kirk E. Koerner in Liberalism and its Critics ( London: Croom Helm, 1985), p. 2 72).
18.
Michael Oakeshott, Rationalism in Politics, expanded ed. ( Indianapolis, IN: Liberty Press, 1991), pp. 5-42.
19.
Ibid., p. 12.

-71-

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