Political Concepts and Political Theories

By Gerald F. Gaus | Go to book overview

approach to justice is exemplified in the idea that a just society is one in which people are able to, and do, perform the duties of their stations. Given the complex nature of society, these stations are differentiated, involving various and unequal rights. These three conservative approaches are variations of the themes of collectivism, traditionalism, and anti- rationalism; they are not mutually exclusive alternatives, but can be combined in a variety of ways to produce variations of conservative justice.


Notes
1.
See, for example, James P. Sterba comments in his edited volume, Justice: Alternative Political Perspectives, 2nd ed. ( Belmont, CA: Wadsworth, 1992), p. 7.
2.
A good example is Kai Nielsen, Equality and Liberty: A Defense of Radical Egalitarianism ( Totowa, NJ: Rowman and Allenheld, 1985).
3.
C. B. Macpherson, Democratic Theory: Essays in Retrieval ( Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1973), pp. 64-65.
4.
Karl Marx, Capital, in Robert C. Tucker, ed., The Marx-Engels Reader, 2nd ed. ( New York: W. W. Norton, 1978), p. 363.
5.
Marx and Engels, The Communist Manifesto, in The Marx-Engels Reader, p. 498.
6.
Frederick Engels, "Socialism: Utopian and Scientific," in The Marx-Engels Reader, p. 685.
7.
Ibid., p. 700.
8.
Karl Marx, "Critique of the Gotha Program," in The Marx-Engels Reader, p. 531.
9.
Marx, quoted in Allen Wood, Karl Marx ( London: Routledge and Kegan Paul, 1981), pp. 130-131.
10.
Ibid., p. 131.
11.
Karl Marx, "Critique of the Gotha Program," quoted in Wood, Karl Marx, p. 136. In Tucker, The Marx-Engels Reader, a slightly different translation is given, referring to "fair" rather than "just" (p. 528).
12.
For a Marxist effort to account for both official state justice and ideal justice, see Milton Fisk, The State and Justice: An Essay in Political Theory ( Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1989).
13.
Ziyad I. Husami, "Marx on Distributive Justice," in Marshall Cohen, Thomas Nagel, and Thomas Scanlon, eds., Marx, Justice and History ( Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1980), pp. 46-47. See also Wood's reply in the same volume.
14.
Jon Elster, An Introduction to Karl Marx ( Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1986), p. 95.
15.
See G. A. Cohen, "The Concept of Exploitation," in Marx, Justice and History, pp. 135-457.
16.
See Judith N. Shklar, The Faces of Injustice ( New Haven: Yale University, 1990).
17.
Karl Marx, "Critique of the Gotha Program," p. 530.
18.
Ibid., p. 531.

-234-

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