Unless otherwise specified, all translations are mine.

Karl Marx and Friedrich Engels, The Communist Manifesto, with an introduction by A. J. P. Taylor (Harmondsworth: Penguin, 1967), pp. 82–83.
The role of the French intellectuals is important for my argument because, as is seen in part 2, French history illustrates one of the two basic types of democratic politics. When I turn to the work of the first generation of the Frankfurt School, it is to suggest one way in which a critical theory that starts from Marxist premises can lose sight of its original political goal (and become identified with a kind of cultural theory that, in the United States, is often identified as French). On the other hand, the recent work of Jürgen Habermas, representing the second generation, shows how those same concerns can develop toward a unique vision of what a chapter in his newest book (which I received too late to address in this text) calls a “democratic Rechtsstaat.” See Jürgen Habermas, Zeit der Übergänge (Frankfurt: Suhrkamp, 2001).
Consistent with the theoretical goals of this book, I have eliminated most material that is either anecdotal or dated historically. The two experiences described here, as well as some brief introductory remarks to chapter 7's discussion of Castoriadis, are the exceptions that, I hope, justify the rule.


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The Specter of Democracy


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