I HAVE incurred more debts in the course of writing this book than I can possibly acknowledge here. Alexander Dallin provided sage guidance throughout the entirety of the project. Philippe Schmitter furnished an invaluable comparative perspective and a great deal of intellectual inspiration. George Breslauer offered much incisive advice and criticism. Valerie Bunce, David Holloway, Gail Lapidus, Rose McDermott, Kelly Smith, and Michael Urban provided invaluable comments on all or parts of the manuscript. Gabriella Montinola furnished a critical eye, all manner of support, and much inspiration. I have also benefited greatly from contacts with many other friends, colleagues, and mentors, among them Daniel Abbasi, Larry Diamond, Alexander George, Mikhail Kamalov, Boris Kapustin, Terry Karl, Ol'ga Makarova, Elena Mal'teva, Sergei Markov, Michael McFaul, Kenneth Roberts, Evgenii Romanovskii, Sergei Vvedinskii, and Nikolai Zlobin.
I owe an enormous debt of gratitude to my parents, Michael Fish and Cherrie Robinson. It is due to their support and sacrifice over the course of a lifetime that our family, for better or worse, includes a professional scholar.
The field research on which this book is based was made possible by the generosity, hospitality, and companionship of countless friends and associates in Russia, many of whom come from the ranks of the courageous and energetic men and women who have made—and continue to make—Russia's democratic revolution. I would like to offer special thanks to Natalia Bondareva, Valentin and Liudmila Gubarev, Andrei Indrikov, Igor' Lukashev, Viktor and Svetlana Pestov, Aleksandr and Galina Romash, Vitalii Sekrieru, Sergei Shvets, and Evgenii Sukhovskii. These people took me into their homes during my travels. They plied me with tea, vodka, pirozhki, and above all delicious and interminable—that is to say, typically Russian—conversation. They gave generously of their time and wonderful humanity for no good reason at all, and for this I am deeply grateful.
I would also like to thank the Berkeley-Stanford Program in Soviet and Post-Soviet Studies, the Institute of International Education Edgar Bronfman Program, and the International Research and Exchanges Board for financial support for my field research.
A part of chapter 3 was reprinted by permission of the Journal of Communist Studies 7, 3 (September 1991), published by Frank Cass & Co., London.