The Columbia Guide to Modern Chinese History

By R. Keith Schoppa | Go to book overview

APPENDIX THREE
Major Party Congresses

CHINESE COMMUNIST PARTY (CCP)

First: July 1921, Shanghai

Set forth general political program; elected Chen Duxiu general secretary and Central Bureau of three; thirteen attended.

Second: July 1922, Shanghai

Elected Central Executive Committee; voted to join the Comintern; adopted concept of democratic centralism; agreed in principle to adopt tactic of a united front with the Guomindang to fight the warlords and imperialists.

Third: June 1923, Guangzhou

Formally agreed—with pressure from the Comintern—to the policy of the “bloc within” whereby individual CCP members could join the Guomindang.

Fourth: January 1925, Shanghai

Established Secretariat to deal with communications and documentation. In context of CCP's role in labor and peasant organizing, tensions increased within the united front.

Fifth: April–May 1927, Wuhan

Established Party's first Political Bureau. After inauguration of Chiang Kaishek's purge, Party abandoned united front policy. In early August an Emergency Conference elected Qu Qiubai as secretary general, stressed tight party discipline, and advocated armed resistance against the Guomindang.

Sixth: June–July 1928, Moscow

Party dominated by Li Lisan until ousted in 1930 after failure of Changsha uprising; from 1932–1935 party head was Bo Gu, one of the “returned Bolsheviks.” During this period the conflict over an urban or rural strategy grew as Mao Zedong established the Jiangxi Soviet. The sixth plenum in Yan'an in October 1938 was the first chaired by Mao, who

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