SCIENCE-TECHNOLOGY, ECONOMICS, AND EVERYDAY LIFE
3000B.C.: In Baluchistan, localized cultures are distinguished by various types of tools, implements, pottery, and burial customs.
3000–2600B.C.: Early Harappan settlements live by traditional subsistence agricultural and pastoral economy. Plows are employed in a field pattern still used in modern-day Punjab. Industries include copper toolmaking and production of stone blades from cores. Economic specialization rises as factory towns such as Lewan and Taraki Qila produce tools and beads.
Gradual cultural convergence among Early Harappan communities over an enormous geographical range results in a transition to the relatively homogeneous urban Harappan culture. Some sites exhibit characteristics of mature Harappan cities: massive mud brick city walls; city planning, with separate citadel and residential districts; water storage systems; multiroomed houses. Tools include plows and grinding stones.
2600–2000B.C.: Harappan farmers practice mixed farming on floodplains using irrigation and inundation techniques. Barley, wheat, millet, peas, sesame, and perhaps rice are major crops, produced in surplus quantities. The land tax is paid in grain. Livestock includes humped cattle, sheep, goats, buffalo, and pigs.
Sophisticated, uniform urban planning in the Mature Harappan period (about ten known sites are classified as cities). Cities are sited adjacent to rivers and oriented northsouth. A citadel is built on a massive mound to west, surrounded by public buildings (assembly halls, baths and other ritual spaces); a “lower city” to the east contains a residential/commercial quarter (including warehouses and workshops). The citadel and lower city are fortified with mud or baked brick walls. Streets follow grid plan with broad main streets. Cities are periodically rebuilt, always to same plan; Mohenjo-Daro has ten layers.
Occupational specialization accompanies social classification among the Harappans: potters, dyers, metal- and shell-workers, and beadmakers are concentrated in separate quarters of towns, living in barrack-like housing.
Harappans invent the most sophisticated