Floyd Dell, The Briary-Bush,p. 34. All further references to this text.
Michael D. Sibalis,“Paris,” pp. 10–38, 10.
Havelock Ellis, Sexual Inversion,p. 351.
John Addington Symonds, A Problem in Modern Ethics,pp. 77–113, 78–79.
David Higgs, Queer Sites,p. 190.
Higgs's Queer Sites demonstrates this pattern clearly. More specific, often neighborhood-based work is being done under the rubric of “queer space” in collections
such as Gordon Brent Ingram, Anne-Marie Bouthillette, and Yolanda Retter, eds., Queers in Space. For another alternative see Kath Weston,“Get Thee to a Big City.”
Sally R. Munt's analysis of the contemporary lesbian as flâneur, in Heroic Desire,
suggests alternatives to the Paris/lesbian focus.
Studies of the expatriate lesbian community in Paris range from Gayle Rubin's
“Introduction” to Andrea Weiss's Paris Was a Woman.
Radclyffe Hall, The Well of Loneliness,p. 238. All further references to this text.
On the Chicago School, see Fred H. Matthews, Quest for an American Sociology
and Martin Bulmer, The Chicago School of Sociology. Chicago School research into
lesbian/gay/queer life is discussed by David K. Johnson, in “The Kids of Fairytown”
and Allen Drexel, in “Before Paris Burned.”
See Marilee Lindemann on “queer” in the 1920s in Willa Cather: Queering
See Elizabeth Wilson, The Sphinx in the City; Marshall Berman, All That Is Solid
Melts into Air; Richard Sennett, Flesh and Stone; and Higgs, Queer Sites,pp. 191–192.
Robert E. Park,“The City,” pp. 91–130, 93. All further references to this text.
In this essay I choose from among a range of terms for individuals who pursue,
identify with, or are identified with same-sex desire. I use “lesbian/gay/queer” in
relation to contemporary materials; “invert,” “lesbian,” or “homosexual” when
referring to The Well; and “homosexual” as the broadest term for my historical
Havelock Ellis,“Commentary,” p. 35 in this volume.
Park notes that “Every large city tends to have its Greenwich Village” (“The
Urban Community,” pp. 3–20, 6). These “villages” all have their “distorted forms of
sex behavior” (Harvey Warren Zorbaugh, Gold Coast and Slum,p. 100).
Nowhere in Hall's account of the city is there any mention of the street-oriented
public sex scenes that are routinely the focus of descriptions of gay male urban life.
“The failure to make heterosexual adjustments is supposed to be consequent on