CHAPTER IV
CELTIC EXPANSION ON THE CONTINENT IN THE HALLSTATT PERIOD

I
THE CELTS IN THE EAST OF FRANCE

I N Germany it is to the third period of the Bronze Age, in France to the Hallstatt Period, that archæologists have given the name of the Tumulus Period.1 For the practice of burying under tumuli became general in the eastern departments of France and made its way to the western departments. These tumuli,2 which vary very much in size, and are often enlarged by secondary burials, are in the main composed of a stone erection, which unfortunately has always fallen in, formed of large rubble pieces arranged in vaulting, covered by a pile of smaller material and sometimes by a chape of beaten earth. The remains of the man for whom the tumulus was originally built were laid on a floor or in a pit. The monument was completed by circles of stones, which sometimes constituted the whole monument, unless the rest has been removed in later times.3 The dead were interred or burned according to the place, time, tribe, and social conditions.4 The French tombs resemble those of Germany5 in characteristic details of construction as in contents. The invasion which had gone on through the Bronze Age seems to have continued, but without the participation of the people of the urn-fields, who still kept themselves distinct from the rest on the other side of the Rhine.

The tanged bronze swords and the thick-hilted bronze swords of the Mörigen type,6 which we have considered above

____________________
1
Déchelette, ii, 2, p. 630.
2
Ibid., pp. 631 ff.; Viollier, CCCCXCI, pp. 35 ff.
3
Déchelette, p. 649 (Pommard), 641 ff.
4
Inhumation seems to be prevalent in eastern France and at the beginning of the Hallstatt Period (ibid., p. 682). Cremation is general in the south-west and in Brittany at the end of that period (ibid., pp. 681-2).
5
Schumacher, in XXIX, x, p. 51; Behrens, in CLXXVII, 1927, pp. 125 ff.
6
The first phase of the Hallstatt Period (Hallstatt A), according to Reinecke, CCCXCIX, v, pp. 231-247.

-253-

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