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To cite a source properly you have to know the type of publication it is such as a book, a periodical, or a website. Then you need the information that will help you properly document it.
Let's start with the easiest to identify: Books. The title page normally contains most of the information you need: Authors name, title, publisher, and year of publication. If the information isn't there, check the next page called the copyright page. If more than one place of publication is listed use the first. If more than one date is listed, use the most recent. If you are citing from an anthology check the table of contents to find the author, title, and page range of your source.
Another publication is the periodical. Carefully determine if an article is from a popular magazine, a newspaper, or a scholarly journal. Each one is documented a little differently. If you retrieve a periodical article through a data base, it may also include a citation. Be careful. This information may not be given in a correct citation style. If not, change it to your assigned style.
Websites can be a challenge. If a webpage doesn't have an individual or corporate author, look for links labeled home, about us, biography, or contact us. In addition to possibly leading you to the sponsor, about us can also help you evaluate the sites credibility. If you're still unable to locate the name of an author, begin your entry with the title of the page.
Sometimes your source doesn't fit into a category. Check with your professor or a reference librarian. They can help you find the information, or help you craft a citation that best fits the source.