The People's Car: John Reynolds on the Forgotten Italian Designer Who Gave Us the 2CV

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Most artists must content themselves with seeing their work reproduced in very limited numbers and exhibited only in galleries. But Flaminio Bertoni, the Italian sculptor, architect and automobile stylist whose centenary is currently celebrated by the Design Museum in London, was more fortunate. The total combined production of his designs for Automobiles Citroen eventually reached more than 8.3 million. During the 1950s and 1960s, his creations were visible in almost every street and car park in western Europe, while his work as a graphic designer became more ubiquitous still. It was he who redesigned the double-chevron badge seen on the front of every Citroen made today to give it a distinct modern look.

As the Design Museum exhibition shows beyond doubt, Bertoni's achievement was to create the exteriors of four of the most individual, influential and instantly recognisable automobiles ever manufactured, all of which are now hailed as cult cars and icons of industrial design. Yet he remains a relatively unknown figure, even among those drivers who own and admire the cars he designed.

The exhibition covers Bertoni's 32-year-long employment at Citroen, from 1932 to 1964, and includes original cars, design drawings and models, as well as contemporary publicity material, all drawn from the Citroen museum and archives in Paris. The centrepiece is a rare example of the TPV (for "toute petite voiture"--the original, pre-war version of the 2CV), one of three prototypes recently discovered at Citroen's test-track at La Ferte-Vidame, where it had lain hidden in a barn since 1938. The remainder of the 250 pre-production examples were destroyed at the outbreak of the Second World War.

Bertoni was born in 1903 in northern Italy, not far from Lake Como, and began work at the age of 15 as an apprentice at a carrozzeria, or coach-builder's, in Varese. In 1923, aged 20, he made his way to Paris, where in 1924 he briefly found work as a bodywork designer and model-maker at the Citroen factory at the Quai de Javel. Between 1929 and 1931, he ran his own design consultancy in Varese, supported by his freelance activities as a graphic artist, illustrator and book-jacket designer. Evidently, the venture did not prosper, as by 1932 he had rejoined Citroen to work on the development of new models. These included the Traction Avant, the world's first mass-produced front-wheel-drive car, introduced in 1934.

The financial strains involved in introducing this revolutionary car at the height of economic depression led to Andre Citroen's bankruptcy. He died in 1935 and the firm was taken over by its major creditor, the Michelin tyre company. The new management's first act was to lay down the specification for a People's Car, the TPV, intended to motorise France's rural population. This ultimately entered production after the war in a greatly modified form, as the 2CV, which was manufactured continuously for 42 years between 1948 and 1990. …