Pack Rat Piles: Rodent Rubbish Provides Ice Age Thermometer

Article excerpt

For a person, life as a pack rat is one of obsessively collecting, say, newspapers, computer parts, food containers, or maybe all of these. But a literal pack rat gathers plant fragments, bone bits, fecal pellets, and even, occasionally, eyewear.

"A friend of mine lost his glasses to a pack rat," says Kenneth Cole of the U.S. Geological Survey in Flagstaff, Ariz. In the September Geology, Cole and a colleague report that pack rats' fossilized collections, secreted away for millennia in caves and rocky overhangs, can improve the portrait of global temperatures at the end of the last ice age.

Known as the Younger Dryas, this portion of the ice age lasted from about 12,900 to 11,600 years ago. Temperatures in Europe, Greenland, and the North Atlantic Ocean during this time averaged 10[degrees]C below today's average temperatures. Scientists have relied on many lines of evidence to reconstruct climate trends. Layers of ice and sea sediment, for example, indicate precipitation and atmospheric composition.

These techniques can't be used everywhere, however. So, in the arid deserts that surround the Grand Canyon, Cole and Samantha Arundel of Northern Arizona University in Flagstaff have turned to pack rats' fossilized collections, or middens.

In their study, the researchers found that Younger Dryas winters in the region around the Grand Canyon averaged as much as 8.7[degrees]C cooler than winters there do today. That's about 4[degrees]C below previous estimates.

Cole and Arundel revealed the local ice age climate by considering the unique temperature gradient of the Grand Canyon along with clues from pack rat scat and fossilized pieces of a plant called Utah agave that turn up in middens. …