Battle of the Blogs; Internet Campaigners for Civil Liberties and Women's Rights Pay a High Price for Their "Online Crimes"

Article excerpt

In September 2001, when the student Salman Jarbar established the first Iranian weblog, no one imagined that blogging would become a social phenomenon in Iran. But over the past seven years blogs have come to fulfil the role of liberal news papers, civil society organisations and even private gatherings. In 2004 unofficial estimates placed Persian as the fourth most common language in the blogosphere.

[ILLUSTRATION OMITTED]

When I started blogging I had already been a journalist for 12 years. The criteria for writing for daily newspapers in Iran are very strict: the laws governing our publications, along with our social, cultural and traditional beliefs, impose lines which cannot be crossed without consequences. Political conditions promote self-censorship as well as official censorship.

At first, journalists were extremely guarded about what they wrote, even online. But that soon changed. As official pressure on the print media increased, daily papers were threatened with closure, and the fear of arrest and imprisonment spread among journalists and activists. Blogs have become our major source of news and information.

As elections approach, bloggers promote or oppose participation, criticise candidates, and provide uncensored analysis, reports, articles and satire. Their impact has been so great that many politicians have taken up blogging themselves. In 2003, Seyyed Mohammad Ali Abtahi, a popular reformist cleric and vice-president to President Khatami, became the first political blogger when he launched www.webneveshteha.com, one of the most visited Iranian blogs. In 2006, President Ahmadinejad followed suit with his own blog, www.ahmadinejad.ir, which is translated into English, French and Arabic.

The blogosphere breaks taboos that the Iranian media cannot. The subject of women is one of the most important: now young women have started to write freely on the internet about themselves: their bodies, their sexual relationships, their hopes and wishes, and their criticisms of the patriarchal norms of Iranian society.

Taboos concerning human rights have also been broken. I have used my blog to openly discuss issues such as stoning and the execution of women and minors, areas rarely covered by even the most daring of reformist publications. But these posts have put me in danger. On 12 June 2006, I met other women's rights activists in one of the main squares in Tehran to protest against legal discrimination against women. The protest was arranged online, because no print publication or other official media outlet was willing to publicise it. The demonstration ended in the arrest of more than 70 people and five activists were charged with organising it.

On the day of their court hearing, several of us went to the revolutionary courts in support of the five women on trial. But our peaceful presence in front of the courthouse was not tolerated and we were violently attacked by police, arrested and taken to prison. Along with 32 other activists, I spent four days in prison. We were released on 8 March 2007, International Women's Day, but were charged with actions against national security. …