Comparative Models of Reporting Mechanisms on the Status of Trafficking in Human Beings

Article excerpt

ABSTRACT

A comprehensive approach to combating trafficking in human beings requires precise knowledge of the scope of the problem and constant evaluation of government responses. Reporting on the status of human trafficking achieves both goals. This Article is designed to examine the various human trafficking reporting mechanisms, including reports that states are required to submit to the United Nations as well as national reports whereby governments engage in a process of self-assessment. Comparative models from Europe and the United States will be examined. The Article analyzes reports released by interministerial task forces as well as congressional hearings held on progress made and future steps that must be taken. This Article advocates establishing an independent and competent national rapporteur or a similar mechanism to assess government actions to combat the problem and recommend changes that should be implemented to reform existing frameworks. While reporting is an essential element of monitoring the status of human trafficking, it has not received adequate attention. This Article attempts to provide the first comprehensive study on the issue.

TABLE OF CONTENTS

  I. INTRODUCTION

 II. A CALL FOR A NATIONAL RAPPORTEUR
     A. The 1997 Hague Declaration: The Birth of
        the Concept of a National Rapporteur
     B. The OSCE Action Plan to Combat
        Trafficking in Human Beings: A
        Commitment to Promoting the Concept
        of a National Rapporteur
     C. Reporting Mechanisms in the Council of
        Europe Convention on Action to Combat
        Trafficking in Human, Beings

III. MODELS OF NATIONAL REPORTING
     A. The Role of an Interministerial Task Force
        in National Reporting: Data Collection
        and Information Gathering
     B. Situation Reports Providing for "Proposal
        of Measures" to Combat Trafficking in
        Human Beings: The Swedish Experience
     C. The Mandate of the National Rapporteur
        in the Netherlands: The Dutch Model for
        Reporting on Trafficking in Human Beings
     D. The Semestrial Progress Reports on the
        Fight Against Trafficking in Human
        Beings: The Romanian Approach
     E. Evaluating the National Strategy of the
        Fight Against Trafficking in Human
        Beings: The Czech Republic Approach
     F. Reporting on Trafficking in Human Beings
        in the United States: The Department of
        Justice Assessment of Government Activities
        to Combat Trafficking in Persons
     G. Reporting on the Status of Severe Forms
        of Trafficking in Foreign Countries: The
        Role of the United States State Department
        Trafficking in Persons Report
     H. Congressional (Parliamentary) Hearings as
        a Means of Monitoring and Reporting on
        Trafficking in Human Beings: Examples
        from Canada and the United States

 IV. STATE REPORTS SUBMITTED TO THE UNITED
     NATIONS
     A. State Reports Submitted to the United
        Nations in Compliance with Article 18
        of the CEDAW
     B. State Reports Submitted to the United
        Nations in Compliance with Article 44
        of the CRC
     C. State Reports That May Be Submitted in
        Compliance with Article 32 of the United
        Nations Convention Against Transnational
        Organized Crime and the United Nations
        Protocol to Prevent, Suppress and Punish
        Trafficking in Persons, Especially Women and
        Children
     D. A Call for Monitoring Measures to Combat
        Trafficking in Persons

  V. INTERNATIONAL REPORTING: A UNITED NATIONS
     SPECIAL RAPPORTEUR
     A. Appointing a Special Rapporteur on
        Trafficking in Persons
     B. Specific Recommendations Made by the
        Special Rapporteur

 VI. MEASURING GOVERNMENT PROGRESS IN
     IMPLEMENTING THE "FIVE PS": PREVENTION,
     PROTECTION, PROVISION, PROSECUTION, AND
     PARTICIPATION
     A. …