African-Americans .. from the 16th Century Bonds of Slavery to the White House; PRESIDENT OBAMA 20.01.09

Article excerpt

EARLY 1500s

BLACK plantation slavery begins in Central and South America when Spaniards import Africans to replace Indians who died from harsh working conditions and disease.

AUGUST 20, 1619

A DUTCH ship with 20 African slaves aboard arrives in the English colony of Jamestown, Virginia.

1644

ELEVEN slaves win some freedoms from New Amsterdam (New York) government.

SEPTEMBER 9, 1739

A SLAVE insurrection leads to the deaths of at least 20 whites and more than 40 blacks near Charleston, South Carolina.

1777

VERMONT is first state to abolish slavery.

1790

PRESIDENT George Washington appoints Benjamin Banneker (right), a free black who owns a farm near Baltimore, to the District of Columbia Commission.

AUGUST 30, 1800

GABRIEL Prosser organises an uprising of 1,000 armed slaves, but is later hanged.

1817

FREE-BORN black slaves are transported back to West Africa, which leads to the eventual creation of Liberia.

1827

FREEDOM'S Journal, based in New York becomes the first black-owned and operated newspaper in the United States, and included articles criticising lynching and slavery.

1836

ALEXANDER Lucius Twilight becomes the first black elected to public office in the state of Vermont.

1839

FORMER president John Adams successfully defends slaves who revolted on the ship Amistad, at the Supreme Court.

1852

HARRIET Beecher Stowe's novel Uncle Tom's Cabin stirs up the anti-slavery debate and sells millions of copies.

1861

CIVIL War pits slave-owning Southern states against the abolitionist states in North.

JANUARY 1, 1863

ABRAHAM Lincoln signs the Emancipation Proclamation.

APRIL 26, 1865

END of the Civil War, bringing freedom to four million black Americans in the southern Confederate states.

1870

HIRAM Revels of Mississippi becomes the first African-American elected to the US Senate Later the same year, Joseph Hayne Rainey is the first black elected to the US House of Representatives.

1914

SAM Lucas becomes the first black actor to star in a fulllength Hollywood film, playing Tom in Uncle Tom's Cabin.

1916

FRITZ Pollard is the first black American football player to be named "All-American" as well as the first black player to appear in a Rose Bowl football game.

1923

PIANIST and orchestrator Fletcher Henderson becomes a bandleader. His prestigious band advances the careers of black musicians such as Louis Armstrong. …