Microbiology

Article excerpt

The Challenge of Re-sensitizing Bacteria Resistant to Broad Spectrum [beta]-Lactam Antibiotics. Nathan Marzonie, University of Michigan--Flint, Department of Biology

[beta]-lactam antibiotics were the first antimicrobics used in medicine and they remain some of the most important. However, the increasing incidence of bacterial resistance to these antibiotics is of great concern. They remain valuable because of their broad spectrum and low toxicity to humans. Recently new, broader spectrum varieties have been developed to solve the problem of increasing resistance to the original [beta]-lactam antibiotics. However, even these new drugs are proving to have questionable importance because bacteria continue to develop resistance to new cephalosporins because of plasmid exchange, lowered binding site affinity, and [beta]-lactamase activity. In addition. the misuse of antibiotics and the increasing incidence of self-medication have increased the incidence of bacterial resistance. This paper will explore the causes and etiology of bacterial resistance. Then, proposed options for new and modified treatments that are effective against resistant bacteria will be explored, including reducing the number of prescriptions, using multi-drug treatments, and administering [beta]-lactams with [beta]-lactamase inhibitors. Lastly, important new research in the area of bacteria re-sensitization will be discussed.

The Nocardia asteroides Complex: Nocardiosis, Treatment and Epidemiological Studies. Adam Butcher, University of Michigan--Flint

Nocardia asteroides is a species of Nocardia that is pathogenic to humans and is typically complexed with two other pathogenic species of Nocardia, N. farcinica and N. nova. N. asteroides belongs to the Actinomycete order of bacteria, the same order as Mycobacterium tuberculosis and Corynebacteria diphtheria. Nocardia are associated with a wide range of disease patterns and mostly effects immunocompromised patients. Nocardial infections most commonly cause pulmonary disease, but can also lead to abscesses of the brain, liver, lungs and other organs. This paper will provide a brief characterization of Nocardia asteroides, followed by an explanation of and treatment for nocardiosis, the term for a nocardial infection, before finally analyzing at an outbreak of nocardial infections within a renal transplant ward in order to discuss its epidemiological factors.

Identifying Local Sources of ARGs and Their Effect on Surrounding Microbial Populations. Timothy Keeton and Robin Morrison, Alma College, Department of Biology

Antibiotic resistance is a growing concern in an era of what many consider excessive antibiotic use. …