Same Greenhouse Gas 3 Different Stories: How Lifecycle Analysis Reveals More Ways to Reduce Emissions

Article excerpt

Barry Commoner, the great American environmentalist and communicator summed up the universe of sustainable living and design in his four laws of ecology:

1. Everything is connected to everything else.

2. Everything must go somewhere.

3. Nature knows best.

4. There is no such thing as a free lunch.

"LIFECYCLE ANALYSIS (LCA) helps us apply Commoner's laws of ecology, giving us a framework to think about how things are connected. An effective response to climate change will require rich countries like Canada to reduce their greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions by 80 per cent or more. That will mean at least quadrupling the carbon-free share of our fuel and electricity supplies, and the efficiency with which we use them.

If ever there was a challenge that required careful, methodical thinking about how things are connected, this is it.

Lifecycle analysis can uncover the connections between GHG emissions and the myriad decisions and behaviours of individuals, households and companies that ultimately drive those emissions. What are the emission impacts of using high-efficiency appliances and lighting? Of telecommuting and teleshopping? Of waste reduction and recycling? Of green buildings? Lifecycle analysis can reframe the challenge of reducing GHG emissions, opening up more potential routes to a low-carbon energy system.

LCA is ideally suited to the problem of GHG reduction because global warming impacts don't depend on where emissions take place, or on complicated pathway analyses. A tonne of greenhouse gas emissions has the same climate impact no matter where it's produced in the lifecycle of a fossil fuel. The source could be a tar sands facility in Alberta, a vehicle tailpipe in Toronto's rush hour, a gas plant in Saskatchewan or a furnace chimney in a Nova Scotia home. The level and pattern of fuel and electricity usage have emissions impacts that can be traced all the way back to the beginning of the lifecycle, and LCA helps us understand the connections that will lead to lower emissions, or even eliminate them.

Plotting a Low-Carbon Future

THE DATA ASSEMBLED here comes from Trottier Energy Futures Project (TEFP), which is designed to engage with Canadians and gain a better understanding of how energy technologies, policy decisions and day-to-day practices could contribute to a low-carbon future. The results of these conversations will be integrated with the Canadian Energy System Simulator (CanESS), the quantitative model used for mapping an 80 per cent reduction In Canadas energy-related GHG emissions (based on a 1990 baseline) by 2050. The TEFP has identified a series of 11 challenge areas that touch all sectors of the economy, and solutions in each area will eventually be fed back into the model.

Point of Emissions Allocation

Conventionally, GHGs are assigned at the paint of emissions, the physical location in the sector and province where the electricity is generated or the fuel Is extracted. The resulting distribution pattern is a familiar one, and has become the most common framework for thinking about where Canada's emissions come from.

By sector, the energy Industry dominates, with fossil fuel and electric power production responsible for half of Canada's GHG emissions. This scenario reinforces the need for emission reduction policies that put the onus on oil and gas producers and electric power generators. This certainly has some utility, but the biggest, most cost-effective opportunities to reduce GHG emissions can actually be found where energy is used, not where It is produced.

For example, using electricity more efficiently in homes and offices reduces the amount of power that must be generated In the first place. Likewise, limiting automobile travel and using fuel efficient cars and transit will cut tailpipe emissions, as well as reduce emissions along the supply chain from the oil field to the filling station. …