Duality in Modern Turkish Ceramic Art Samples

Article excerpt

APPROACHES RELATED WITH DUALITY

Dualism is defined as "being double: two principle views which are separate, independent, unreturnable, that are alongside or opposite each other" or "philosophical views that claim that there are two different realities that are independent and separate."

The basic areas of study interested in duality are theology and philosophy. There are some differences between ancient philosophy and modern philosophy in their approaches to duality. In philosophy duality is interpreted as a branch that discusses the nature and source of information (for example, epistemologically). Egyptian Hermes (Erdogan, 2003, pp 59-74), who is controversially accepted as the father of philosophy by philosophers, emphasises the "duality" named "the Creator" and "the Created". The Creator cannot exist without the work s/he creates (Emir, 2006, p 73). The dismissal of Adam and Even from heaven includes "evil-/devil-good/God" and "God-its manifestation human" dualities as well as masculine-feminine duality. Anaxagoras (500-428 B.C.) has separated spirit and substance and stated that they would be separated until the end of time. Based on this main thought, later the thoughts of Bergson (1859-1941) will emerge. According to Heraclitus of Ephesus (end of 6th century BC) the war of opposites is the obligatory and only condition of existence. If there was not a war between the opposites, there would not be anything). According to him, the universe consists of contrary elements. According to Leucippus (around 450 BC) everything comes into existence due to a reason compulsorily. Just as there is existence, there is also non-existence. Non-existence is the indispensible condition of existence. These two thoughts will develop and shape the thoughts of Hegel (1770-1831) and Marx. In the 5th century, Protagoras (485-411 BC), Socrates (468-400 BC) and Plato (427-347 BC) try to tell good and bad, goodness.

The philosophy of Plotinus (205-270 AD) has been a source of inspiration for Jewish, Christian, Gnostic and Islamic philosophers and mystics. A contrast of dualist eternal god and eternal substance takes place on the basis of Numenius's thought in the 2nd century AD. It is presumed that the views of Numenius affected the development of New Platonism in the 3rd century AD, the main representative of which is Platinus. Dualist philosophers and theologists limit the spiritual life with mind-body or spirit-nature dualities. (Robinson, 1935, p 42) Contrary to dualism, monism denies that the mind and body are different substances. Monists claim that all substances are one. In Iran, dualism set up on the contrast of goodness and badness forms the basis of Zoroastrianism. A badness of Angra Mainyu replies each goodness created by Ahura Mazda. It is believed, however, that there is monotheism deep in this duality, because God has a place and degree above the demon. (Sayim, 2004, pp 98-101). In Iran, according to Manichaeism, the main rule of religion also relies on the contrast of goodness and badness. Goodness is light and spirit, badness is darkness and body.

In the Old Testament, heaven is stated as the Garden of Eden. Humans are dismissed from here as a result of theft. In contrast to the duality of spirit and substance, the duality of oppressors and oppressed develops in the operational area. Along with Christianity, Christ told humanity the poverty standard in contrast to the benefit standard of Moses. Even though those concepts of Islam 'World' and 'Afterlife' are complementary, starting with 10th century AD, under the influence of Christianity, sultanate reigns, the fatalist mystic understanding and that those done in this world are in vain, separation started and gained a dualist understanding. (Altintas, 2003, p 129). In the 17th century, philosophers discussed the thoughts of Ancient Era and Renaissance philosophers once more systematically. Substance and mind duality which fills the content of duality concept that is attributed to Descartes dates back to old times. …