Segmentation of Leisure Markets Using Entertainment Options: A Factor Analysis

Article excerpt

James J. Zhang, John Blum, Eddie T. C. Lam, Liette B. Ocker, Debbie P. Williamson, Uyen L. Pham, and Jay T. Lee, University of Houston, and Kenneth A. Wail, Springfield College

Market segmentation is a prerequisite to formulate an effective sport marketing mix, i.e., product, place, price, and promotion. Marketing experts have suggested four procedures to fulfill this need: sociodemographics, usage level, consumer psychology, and consumer lifestyle. Of these, the first three have primarily been used in marketing research and practice. Although there is a consensus on the importance of segmentation through life style, this procedure has basically been overlooked, which may have been due to the complexity and difficulty involved to quantify and standardize life styles of different individuals. The purpose of this study was intended to fill the void by segmenting leisure markets through entertainment options of American leisure consumers. Through a review of literature, a total of 13 common leisure options were identified (movies, theater, concerts, restaurants, bar/night clubs, nonsport TV programs, sport TV programs, renting movies, workout/exercise, sporting event, recreational spor ts, internet, and traveling). These options were phrased into a questionnaire in Likert 5-scale statements with 5 being "most often" and 1 being "never." Content validity of the questionnaire was examined through a panel of four experts. A survey was conducted in a major southern city through various means including soliciting the opinions of individuals at shopping malls (n = 225), food courts (n = 175), restaurants (n = 40), and sport arenas (n = 25), as well as telephone interviews with people selected from the local telephone directory (n = 60). …