Staff Studies

Article excerpt

The staff members of the Board of Governors of the Federal Reserve System and of the Federal Reserve Banks undertake studies that cover a wide range of economic and financial subjects. From time to time, the studies that are of general interest are published in the Staff Studies series and summarized in the Federal Reserve Bulletin. The analyses and conclusions set forth are those of the authors and do not necessarily indicate concurrence by the Board of Governors, by the Federal Reserve Banks, or by members of their staffs.

Single copies of the full text of each study are available without charge. The titles available are shown under "Staff Studies" in the list of Federal Reserve Board publications at the back of each Bulletin.

STUDY SUMMARY

BANK MERGERS AND BANKING STRUCTURE IN THE UNITED STATES, 1980-98

The U.S. banking industry experienced a sustained and unprecedented merger movement from 1980 to 1998. During that period, approximately 8,000 bank mergers occurred, involving about $2.4 trillion in acquired assets. The 1990s, especially 1994-98, was a period of numerous large bank mergers, including several that were among the largest in U.S. banking history. This study describes various aspects of that bank merger activity and some of the changes in U.S. banking structure and performance that took place during 1980-98.

With respect to bank merger activity, the study examines the number and asset size of the acquiring and acquired banks, by year and state; the identities and sizes of the parties involved in large mergers; the types of mergers (horizontal and market extension), markets (urban and rural), and corporate form of the acquirers (independent banks and bank holding companies); and the number of mergers and related assets approved by each federal bank regulator. …