The Quick Discrimination Index: Normative Data and User Guidelines for Counseling Researchers. (Articles)

Article excerpt

This article summarizes normative data and psychometric evidence for scores on the Quick Discrimination Index (J. G. Ponterotto et al., 1995; S. O. Utsey & J. G. Ponterotto, 1999). Specific guidelines for counseling researchers and practitioners are provided.

Este articulo resume los datos normativos y evidencia psicometrica para resultados del Indice Rapido de la Discriminacion (J. G. Ponterotto et al., 1995; S. O. Utsey & J. G. Ponterotto, 1999). Las normas especificas para investigadores y profesionales practicantes de la consejeria son proporcionadas.

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The last decade has witnessed increasing attention to the important role of professional counselors working with issues of social justice (Lee & Walz, 1998; Ponterotto, Casas, Suzuki, & Alexander, 2001). Chief among these issues is the call for greater activism in fighting racism and ethnic prejudice (Kiselica, 1999; Sandhu & Aspy, 1997). Professional counselors, because of their training in research and measurement, human relations, and multicultural counseling, are ideally equipped to contribute to the scholarly study of prejudice formation and amelioration (Ponterotto & Pedersen, 1993). One important role in the counselor's commitment to social justice and racial harmony is that of scholar and researcher. A necessary tool for the systematic study of prejudice and tolerance is psychometrically sound research instruments.

One such instrument, the Quick Discrimination Index (QDI; Ponterotto et al., 1995; Utsey & Ponterotto, 1999), is being used increasingly by counselors working in the multicultural area. The QDI assesses prejudicial attitudes directed toward racial minority groups and women. High scores on the QDI reflect nonracist and nonsexist attitudes, and low scores reflect negative attitudes toward racial minority individuals and women. Because discrimination is chiefly characterized by negative behavior (e.g., restricting access and equal opportunity), toward select groups, the QDI is not a measure of discrimination in a strict sense but a measure of attitudes underlying potential discriminatory behavior (Ponterotto & Pedersen, 1993).

Recent comprehensive reviews of prejudice instrumentation conducted by both social (Biernat & Crandall, 1999) and counseling (Burkard, Medler, & Boticki, 2001) psychologists found the QDI to be one of the more promising of the available instruments. Although it is used increasingly by multicultural counseling researchers, there is at present no single resource that provides normative data and user guidelines for the QDI. The purpose of this article is to present normative and comparison data on the QDI as culled from an exhaustive review of journal articles and doctoral dissertations. Such a summative data source will provide researchers with a comparative database with which to better interpret and integrate their own QDI results. We also present specific user and data analysis guidelines for the QDI in the hopes of promoting a more systematic data collection process that will facilitate the collective integration of results over time and across many samples and intervention programs.

We begin this brief report with a review of the QDI and its development, followed by tabular summaries of statistical and psychometric properties relative to the QDI subscales. The article ends with a summative evaluation of the QDI and with suggested user guidelines.

development and validation of the QDI

The QDI is a subject-centered scale (Dawis, 1987) that is designed to assess the multidimensional nature of attitudes. Attitudes can be defined as "positive or negative evaluations of objects of thought" (Weiten, 2001, p. 670). Objects of thought may include groups (e.g., women, racial minorities) and social issues (e.g., affirmative action, bilingual education), as well as other targets. …